Abstract

In magnetron sputtered indium-tin-oxide thin films of varying oxygen content, nanostructures were formed using tightly focused high-repetition rate near-infrared sub-15 femtosecond pulsed laser light. At radiant exposure well beyond the ablation threshold, cuts of 280–350 nm in width were generated. Illumination close to the ablation threshold resulted in periodic cuts of typically 20 nm in width at periodicities between 50 nm and 180 nm, as well as single sub-20 nm cuts. Subthreshold exposure, in combination with hydrochloric acid etching, yielded nanowires of 50 nm minimum lateral dimensions.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. C. Paine, H.-Y. Yeom, and B. Yaglioglu, in Flexible and Flat Panel Displays (Wiley, 2005), pp. 79–98.
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    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Ray, R. Banerjee, N. Basu, A. K. Batabyal, and A. K. Barua, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3497 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  8. M. Y. Xu, J. Li, L. D. Lilge, and P. R. Herman, Appl. Phys. A 85, 7 (2006).
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  10. M. Park, B. H. Chon, H. S. Kim, S. C. Jeoung, D. Kim, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and H. R. Kim, Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 138 (2006).
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2011 (1)

2009 (1)

T. Ashida, A. Miyamura, N. Oka, Y. Sato, T. Yagi, N. Taketoshi, T. Baba, and Y. Shigesato, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 073709 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M.-F. Chen, Y.-P. Chen, W.-T. Hsiao, and Z.-P. Gu, Thin Solid Films 515, 8515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. Park, B. H. Chon, H. S. Kim, S. C. Jeoung, D. Kim, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and H. R. Kim, Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 138 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Xu, J. Li, L. D. Lilge, and P. R. Herman, Appl. Phys. A 85, 7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Bonse, M. Muz, and H. Sturm, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

F. Costache, S. Kouteva-Arguirova, and J. Reif, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

R. Tanaka, T. Tokaoka, H. Mizukami, T. Arai, and Y. Iwai, Proc. SPIE 5063, 370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Yasumaro, K. Myazaki, and J. Kiuchi, Appl. Phys. A 76, 983 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

J. S. Kim, F. Cacialli, A. Cola, G. Gigli, and R. Cingolani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 19 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, Appl. Phys. Lett 74, 23 (1999).

O. Yavas and M. Takai, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. G. Lunny, R. R. O’Neil, and K. Schulmeister, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 647 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

M. Inoue, T. Matsuoka, Y. Fujita, and A. Abe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 274 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

I. Hamberg and C. Granqvist, J. Appl. Phys. 60, R123 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

S. Ray, R. Banerjee, N. Basu, A. K. Batabyal, and A. K. Barua, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3497 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

H. M. Van Driel, J. E. Spie, and J. F. Young, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

M. Birnbaum, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3688 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

R. B. Belser and W. H. Hicklin, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 313 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1853 (1)

G. Wiedemann and R. Franz, Ann. Phys. 165, 497 (1853).
[CrossRef]

Abe, A.

M. Inoue, T. Matsuoka, Y. Fujita, and A. Abe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 274 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Apple, M.

Arai, T.

R. Tanaka, T. Tokaoka, H. Mizukami, T. Arai, and Y. Iwai, Proc. SPIE 5063, 370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ashida, T.

T. Ashida, A. Miyamura, N. Oka, Y. Sato, T. Yagi, N. Taketoshi, T. Baba, and Y. Shigesato, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 073709 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

T. Ashida, A. Miyamura, N. Oka, Y. Sato, T. Yagi, N. Taketoshi, T. Baba, and Y. Shigesato, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 073709 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, R.

S. Ray, R. Banerjee, N. Basu, A. K. Batabyal, and A. K. Barua, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3497 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Barua, A. K.

S. Ray, R. Banerjee, N. Basu, A. K. Batabyal, and A. K. Barua, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3497 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bashar, S.

S. Bashar, “Study of indium tin oxide (ITO) for novel optoelectronic devices,” Ph.D. thesis (University of London, 1998).

Basu, N.

S. Ray, R. Banerjee, N. Basu, A. K. Batabyal, and A. K. Barua, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3497 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Batabyal, A. K.

S. Ray, R. Banerjee, N. Basu, A. K. Batabyal, and A. K. Barua, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3497 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Belser, R. B.

R. B. Belser and W. H. Hicklin, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 313 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Birnbaum, M.

M. Birnbaum, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3688 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bonse, J.

J. Bonse, M. Muz, and H. Sturm, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Borowiec, A.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cacialli, F.

J. S. Kim, F. Cacialli, A. Cola, G. Gigli, and R. Cingolani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 19 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.-F.

M.-F. Chen, Y.-P. Chen, W.-T. Hsiao, and Z.-P. Gu, Thin Solid Films 515, 8515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-P.

M.-F. Chen, Y.-P. Chen, W.-T. Hsiao, and Z.-P. Gu, Thin Solid Films 515, 8515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chon, B. H.

M. Park, B. H. Chon, H. S. Kim, S. C. Jeoung, D. Kim, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and H. R. Kim, Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 138 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chrisey, D. B.

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, Appl. Phys. Lett 74, 23 (1999).

Chu, H. Y.

M. Park, B. H. Chon, H. S. Kim, S. C. Jeoung, D. Kim, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and H. R. Kim, Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 138 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cingolani, R.

J. S. Kim, F. Cacialli, A. Cola, G. Gigli, and R. Cingolani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 19 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cola, A.

J. S. Kim, F. Cacialli, A. Cola, G. Gigli, and R. Cingolani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 19 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Costache, F.

F. Costache, S. Kouteva-Arguirova, and J. Reif, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dawar, A.

H. Hartnagel, A. Dawar, A. Jain, and C. Jagadish, Semiconducting Transparent Thin Films (IOP Publishing, 1995).

Doerr, D.

Franz, R.

G. Wiedemann and R. Franz, Ann. Phys. 165, 497 (1853).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, Y.

M. Inoue, T. Matsuoka, Y. Fujita, and A. Abe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 274 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gigli, G.

J. S. Kim, F. Cacialli, A. Cola, G. Gigli, and R. Cingolani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 19 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Granqvist, C.

I. Hamberg and C. Granqvist, J. Appl. Phys. 60, R123 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Z.-P.

M.-F. Chen, Y.-P. Chen, W.-T. Hsiao, and Z.-P. Gu, Thin Solid Films 515, 8515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hamberg, I.

I. Hamberg and C. Granqvist, J. Appl. Phys. 60, R123 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hartnagel, H.

H. Hartnagel, A. Dawar, A. Jain, and C. Jagadish, Semiconducting Transparent Thin Films (IOP Publishing, 1995).

Haugen, H. K.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

M. Y. Xu, J. Li, L. D. Lilge, and P. R. Herman, Appl. Phys. A 85, 7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hicklin, W. H.

R. B. Belser and W. H. Hicklin, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 313 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Horwitz, J. S.

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, Appl. Phys. Lett 74, 23 (1999).

Hsiao, W.-T.

M.-F. Chen, Y.-P. Chen, W.-T. Hsiao, and Z.-P. Gu, Thin Solid Films 515, 8515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, M.

M. Inoue, T. Matsuoka, Y. Fujita, and A. Abe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 274 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Iwai, Y.

R. Tanaka, T. Tokaoka, H. Mizukami, T. Arai, and Y. Iwai, Proc. SPIE 5063, 370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jagadish, C.

H. Hartnagel, A. Dawar, A. Jain, and C. Jagadish, Semiconducting Transparent Thin Films (IOP Publishing, 1995).

Jain, A.

H. Hartnagel, A. Dawar, A. Jain, and C. Jagadish, Semiconducting Transparent Thin Films (IOP Publishing, 1995).

Jeoung, S. C.

M. Park, B. H. Chon, H. S. Kim, S. C. Jeoung, D. Kim, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and H. R. Kim, Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 138 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kafafi, Z. H.

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, Appl. Phys. Lett 74, 23 (1999).

Kim, D.

M. Park, B. H. Chon, H. S. Kim, S. C. Jeoung, D. Kim, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and H. R. Kim, Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 138 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, Appl. Phys. Lett 74, 23 (1999).

Kim, H. R.

M. Park, B. H. Chon, H. S. Kim, S. C. Jeoung, D. Kim, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and H. R. Kim, Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 138 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. S.

M. Park, B. H. Chon, H. S. Kim, S. C. Jeoung, D. Kim, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and H. R. Kim, Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 138 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. S.

J. S. Kim, F. Cacialli, A. Cola, G. Gigli, and R. Cingolani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 19 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kiuchi, J.

N. Yasumaro, K. Myazaki, and J. Kiuchi, Appl. Phys. A 76, 983 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koenig, K.

K. Koenig, in Handbook of Biological Nonlinear Optical Microscopy (Oxford University, 2008), pp. 689–706.

Kouteva-Arguirova, S.

F. Costache, S. Kouteva-Arguirova, and J. Reif, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Le Harzic, R.

Lee, J.

M. Park, B. H. Chon, H. S. Kim, S. C. Jeoung, D. Kim, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and H. R. Kim, Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 138 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

M. Y. Xu, J. Li, L. D. Lilge, and P. R. Herman, Appl. Phys. A 85, 7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lilge, L. D.

M. Y. Xu, J. Li, L. D. Lilge, and P. R. Herman, Appl. Phys. A 85, 7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lunny, J. G.

J. G. Lunny, R. R. O’Neil, and K. Schulmeister, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 647 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Matsuoka, T.

M. Inoue, T. Matsuoka, Y. Fujita, and A. Abe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 274 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mattoussi, H.

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, Appl. Phys. Lett 74, 23 (1999).

Miyamura, A.

T. Ashida, A. Miyamura, N. Oka, Y. Sato, T. Yagi, N. Taketoshi, T. Baba, and Y. Shigesato, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 073709 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mizukami, H.

R. Tanaka, T. Tokaoka, H. Mizukami, T. Arai, and Y. Iwai, Proc. SPIE 5063, 370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Murata, H.

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, Appl. Phys. Lett 74, 23 (1999).

Muz, M.

J. Bonse, M. Muz, and H. Sturm, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Myazaki, K.

N. Yasumaro, K. Myazaki, and J. Kiuchi, Appl. Phys. A 76, 983 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Neumeier, M.

O’Neil, R. R.

J. G. Lunny, R. R. O’Neil, and K. Schulmeister, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 647 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Oka, N.

T. Ashida, A. Miyamura, N. Oka, Y. Sato, T. Yagi, N. Taketoshi, T. Baba, and Y. Shigesato, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 073709 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paine, D. C.

D. C. Paine, H.-Y. Yeom, and B. Yaglioglu, in Flexible and Flat Panel Displays (Wiley, 2005), pp. 79–98.

Park, M.

M. Park, B. H. Chon, H. S. Kim, S. C. Jeoung, D. Kim, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and H. R. Kim, Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 138 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pique, A.

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, Appl. Phys. Lett 74, 23 (1999).

Ray, S.

S. Ray, R. Banerjee, N. Basu, A. K. Batabyal, and A. K. Barua, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3497 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Reif, J.

F. Costache, S. Kouteva-Arguirova, and J. Reif, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sato, Y.

T. Ashida, A. Miyamura, N. Oka, Y. Sato, T. Yagi, N. Taketoshi, T. Baba, and Y. Shigesato, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 073709 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, D.

Schulmeister, K.

J. G. Lunny, R. R. O’Neil, and K. Schulmeister, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 647 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shigesato, Y.

T. Ashida, A. Miyamura, N. Oka, Y. Sato, T. Yagi, N. Taketoshi, T. Baba, and Y. Shigesato, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 073709 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spie, J. E.

H. M. Van Driel, J. E. Spie, and J. F. Young, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Stracke, F.

Sturm, H.

J. Bonse, M. Muz, and H. Sturm, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takai, M.

O. Yavas and M. Takai, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taketoshi, N.

T. Ashida, A. Miyamura, N. Oka, Y. Sato, T. Yagi, N. Taketoshi, T. Baba, and Y. Shigesato, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 073709 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, R.

R. Tanaka, T. Tokaoka, H. Mizukami, T. Arai, and Y. Iwai, Proc. SPIE 5063, 370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tokaoka, T.

R. Tanaka, T. Tokaoka, H. Mizukami, T. Arai, and Y. Iwai, Proc. SPIE 5063, 370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Van Driel, H. M.

H. M. Van Driel, J. E. Spie, and J. F. Young, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wiedemann, G.

G. Wiedemann and R. Franz, Ann. Phys. 165, 497 (1853).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M. Y.

M. Y. Xu, J. Li, L. D. Lilge, and P. R. Herman, Appl. Phys. A 85, 7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yagi, T.

T. Ashida, A. Miyamura, N. Oka, Y. Sato, T. Yagi, N. Taketoshi, T. Baba, and Y. Shigesato, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 073709 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yaglioglu, B.

D. C. Paine, H.-Y. Yeom, and B. Yaglioglu, in Flexible and Flat Panel Displays (Wiley, 2005), pp. 79–98.

Yasumaro, N.

N. Yasumaro, K. Myazaki, and J. Kiuchi, Appl. Phys. A 76, 983 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yavas, O.

O. Yavas and M. Takai, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yeom, H.-Y.

D. C. Paine, H.-Y. Yeom, and B. Yaglioglu, in Flexible and Flat Panel Displays (Wiley, 2005), pp. 79–98.

Young, J. F.

H. M. Van Driel, J. E. Spie, and J. F. Young, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, H.

Ann. Phys. (1)

G. Wiedemann and R. Franz, Ann. Phys. 165, 497 (1853).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (3)

M. Y. Xu, J. Li, L. D. Lilge, and P. R. Herman, Appl. Phys. A 85, 7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Yasumaro, K. Myazaki, and J. Kiuchi, Appl. Phys. A 76, 983 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Costache, S. Kouteva-Arguirova, and J. Reif, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett (1)

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, Appl. Phys. Lett 74, 23 (1999).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. G. Lunny, R. R. O’Neil, and K. Schulmeister, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 647 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kim, F. Cacialli, A. Cola, G. Gigli, and R. Cingolani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 19 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (7)

R. B. Belser and W. H. Hicklin, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 313 (1959).
[CrossRef]

T. Ashida, A. Miyamura, N. Oka, Y. Sato, T. Yagi, N. Taketoshi, T. Baba, and Y. Shigesato, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 073709 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Birnbaum, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3688 (1965).
[CrossRef]

O. Yavas and M. Takai, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Hamberg and C. Granqvist, J. Appl. Phys. 60, R123 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. Ray, R. Banerjee, N. Basu, A. K. Batabyal, and A. K. Barua, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3497 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, M. Muz, and H. Sturm, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Inoue, T. Matsuoka, Y. Fujita, and A. Abe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 274 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

M. Park, B. H. Chon, H. S. Kim, S. C. Jeoung, D. Kim, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and H. R. Kim, Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 138 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. M. Van Driel, J. E. Spie, and J. F. Young, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. Tanaka, T. Tokaoka, H. Mizukami, T. Arai, and Y. Iwai, Proc. SPIE 5063, 370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

M.-F. Chen, Y.-P. Chen, W.-T. Hsiao, and Z.-P. Gu, Thin Solid Films 515, 8515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

H. Hartnagel, A. Dawar, A. Jain, and C. Jagadish, Semiconducting Transparent Thin Films (IOP Publishing, 1995).

D. C. Paine, H.-Y. Yeom, and B. Yaglioglu, in Flexible and Flat Panel Displays (Wiley, 2005), pp. 79–98.

S. Bashar, “Study of indium tin oxide (ITO) for novel optoelectronic devices,” Ph.D. thesis (University of London, 1998).

K. Koenig, in Handbook of Biological Nonlinear Optical Microscopy (Oxford University, 2008), pp. 689–706.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Grooves in ITO2 (a1), ITO4 (a2), and ITO6 (a3). (b) Periodic cuts in these samples. Three different regions are identified by “O” (original layer), “M” (modified region), and “A” (ablated region). (c) Magnified SEM images of periodic cuts.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Width of grooves and (b) periodicity of cuts versus scan speed.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Modified ITO structure after etching in HCl at room temperature. (b) Nanowire produced at a transverse dimension of 50 nm. (c) Single cut of width 20 nm (length 4μm). (d) Etched ITO structure featuring a groove and periodic cuts surrounded by modified regions.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Oxygen Flow ratio, Surface Roughness (Rrms), and Electrical Resistivity (ρ) with Temperature Coefficient (α) as Measured for ITO-2, ITO-4, and ITO-6

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