Abstract

In this Letter, we propose general optimization methods to design broadband high-efficiency grating couplers for planar waveguides. We attribute the coupling bandwidth to the mismatch of effective indices between the diffracted beam and the actual grating structure around the operation wavelength for fiber to waveguide excitation. The coupling bandwidth formula is deduced. A simple parameter-separate optimization procedure is proposed for general layered grating couplers for high coupling efficiency. Using our principle, we optimized a grating coupler for a horizontal slot waveguide operating at wavelength 1.55 μm for TM polarization. The grating coupler has 1 dB bandwidth of 60 nm and coupling efficiency of 65% with incident light from single-mode optical fiber (SMF) at 8°.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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2010 (2)

J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, Nature Photonics 4, 10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

G. Roelken, D. Vermeulen, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Galan, P. Sanchis, and J. Marti, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 985 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 14, 11622 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1990 (1)

1985 (1)

K. G. Thomas and M. G. Moharam, Proc. IEEE 73, 894 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

S. M. Rytov, Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466 (1956).

Almeida, V. R.

Avrutsky, I. A.

Ayre, M.

F. V. Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, Nature Photonics 4, 10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

G. Roelken, D. Vermeulen, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. V. Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 14, 11622 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brision, S.

G. Roelken, D. Vermeulen, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L. L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

Chen, L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, C. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2011).

Chen, Y.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. M.

X. Chen, C. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2011).

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fédéli, J.-M.

G. Roelken, D. Vermeulen, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fung, C.

X. Chen, C. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2011).

Galan, J. V.

J. V. Galan, P. Sanchis, and J. Marti, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 985 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gautier, P.

G. Roelken, D. Vermeulen, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Halir, R.

Hochberg, M.

J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, Nature Photonics 4, 10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

Krauss, T. F.

Laere, F. V.

Laere, V.

D. Taillaert, V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, Y.

Lyan, P.

G. Roelken, D. Vermeulen, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marti, J.

J. V. Galan, P. Sanchis, and J. Marti, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 985 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

K. G. Thomas and M. G. Moharam, Proc. IEEE 73, 894 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Molina-Fernández, Í.

Parriaux, O.

Roelken, G.

G. Roelken, D. Vermeulen, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

Rytov, S. M.

S. M. Rytov, Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466 (1956).

Sanchis, P.

J. V. Galan, P. Sanchis, and J. Marti, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 985 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schrauwen, J.

Svakhin, A. S.

Sychugov, V. A.

Taillaert, D.

F. V. Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, K. G.

K. G. Thomas and M. G. Moharam, Proc. IEEE 73, 894 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D. V.

G. Roelken, D. Vermeulen, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 14, 11622 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

X. Chen, C. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2011).

Van Thourhout, D.

Vermeulen, D.

G. Roelken, D. Vermeulen, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

Witzens, J.

J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, Nature Photonics 4, 10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.-X.

Xu, Q.

Yu, J. Z.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Roelken, D. Vermeulen, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. V. Galan, P. Sanchis, and J. Marti, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 985 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Taillaert, V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photonics (1)

J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, Nature Photonics 4, 10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. IEEE (1)

K. G. Thomas and M. G. Moharam, Proc. IEEE 73, 894 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

S. M. Rytov, Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466 (1956).

Other (1)

X. Chen, C. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2011).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The parameter-separate optimization process. (a) Planar waveguide structure; (b) optimize the unpatterned grating region with an overlay for half film transmission; (c) scan for the best etching depth; (4) tune the external interference layers.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) The optimum coupling efficiency and film transmission at different overlay thickness. (b) The coupling efficiency versus the etching depth while overlay thickness is 65 nm, 160 nm, and 290 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Proposed grating coupler structure. (b) Schematic showing main parameters.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) The coupling efficiency of the proposed grating coupler with and without substrate. (b) The mismatch between the neff of diffraction light and the actual neff of the grating coupler. (c) Film transmission spectral of the unpatterned grating region.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The Comparison Between Different Gating Couplers

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n0λsinθ+ndλ=1Λ,
nd(λ)=[nw(λo)nosinθ]·λλo+nosinθ.
Dn(λ)=[nw(λ0)n0sinθ]·λλ0+n0sinθnw(λ).
Δλ=ΔDnnw(λ0)n0sinθλ0dnw(λ)dλ|λ=λ0.
Δλ1dB=C1dB|1nw(λo)nosinθλodnw(λ)dλ|λ=λ0|.

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