Abstract

We investigate the role of a spatially inhomogenous nonresonant background medium on several Raman-based imaging modalities. In particular, we consider a small resonant bead submerged in a spatially heterogeneous nonresonant χ(3) background. Using detailed 3D electrodynamic simulations, we compare coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), frequency-modulated CARS, amplitude-modulated stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), and frequency-modulated SRS. We find that only FM-SRS is background-free.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011 (2)

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62, 507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. I. Popov, A. F. Pegoraro, A. Stolow, and L. Ramunno, Opt. Express 19, 5902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, Science 330, 1368 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

C. Evans and X. S. Xie, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1, 883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2001 (1)

1980 (1)

Bjorklund, G. C.

Book, L.

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, in Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, 2003), p. 194.

Cheng, J.

Dake, F.

Evans, C.

Freudiger, C. W.

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62, 507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, Science 330, 1368 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fukui, K.

Ganikhanov, F.

He, C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Herek, J. L.

M. Jurna, J. P. Korterik, C. Otto, J. L. Herek, and H. L. Offerhaus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Holtom, G. R.

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, Science 330, 1368 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

Jia, Y.

Jurna, M.

M. Jurna, J. P. Korterik, C. Otto, J. L. Herek, and H. L. Offerhaus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kajiyama, S.

Kang, J. X.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Korterik, J. P.

M. Jurna, J. P. Korterik, C. Otto, J. L. Herek, and H. L. Offerhaus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, S.

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62, 507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Min, W.

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62, 507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moffatt, D. J.

Offerhaus, H. L.

M. Jurna, J. P. Korterik, C. Otto, J. L. Herek, and H. L. Offerhaus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Otto, C.

M. Jurna, J. P. Korterik, C. Otto, J. L. Herek, and H. L. Offerhaus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ozeki, Y.

Pegoraro, A. F.

Pezacki, J. P.

Popov, K. I.

Potma, E. O.

E. O. Potma and X. S. Xie, in Handbook of Biological Nonlinear Optical Microscopy, B. R. Masters and P. T. C. So, eds. (Oxford University, 2008), pp. 164–185.

Ramunno, L.

Reichman, J.

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, Science 330, 1368 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ridsdale, A.

Saar, B. G.

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, Science 330, 1368 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Ganikhanov, C. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, Opt. Lett. 31, 1872 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, C. M.

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, Science 330, 1368 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stolow, A.

Tsai, J. C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

Xie, X. S.

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62, 507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, Science 330, 1368 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Evans and X. S. Xie, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1, 883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Ganikhanov, C. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, Opt. Lett. 31, 1872 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. O. Potma and X. S. Xie, in Handbook of Biological Nonlinear Optical Microscopy, B. R. Masters and P. T. C. So, eds. (Oxford University, 2008), pp. 164–185.

Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (1)

C. Evans and X. S. Xie, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1, 883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62, 507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Jurna, J. P. Korterik, C. Otto, J. L. Herek, and H. L. Offerhaus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, Science 330, 1368 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. W. Boyd, in Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, 2003), p. 194.

E. O. Potma and X. S. Xie, in Handbook of Biological Nonlinear Optical Microscopy, B. R. Masters and P. T. C. So, eds. (Oxford University, 2008), pp. 164–185.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic draft of the three cases considered in the text. The thick lines represent the focused pulse shape and the shaded region indicates the presence of the nonresonant χ(3)0. The laser pulse propagates from left to right in the figures.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

FDTD simulations of the image formation process in coherent Raman scattering microscopies. Signal variation with bead position in the presence of a nonersonant background medium for (a) CARS; (b) FM-CARS; (c) AM-SRS; (d) FM-SRS. Solid lines: nonresonant background case 1; dashed lines: case 2; dotted lines: case 3. Signal level in the absence of the Raman bead is shown by thin lines. The “norm.u.” stands for arbitrary normalized units.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Parameter dependence of the nonresonant background signal in AM-SRS. Results of FDTD simulations with laser lens NA=1.1. NAc is the NA of the condenser lens. The magnitude of electronic χ(3) of water is shown by the dashed line.

Equations (1)

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2ikEx+ΔE+4πω2c2χ(3)(x)E3=0,

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