Abstract

We demonstrate an improved method for fabricating optical waveguides in bulk materials by means of femtosecond laser writing. We use an LC spatial light modulator (SLM) to shape the beam focus by generating adaptive slit illumination in the pupil of the objective lens. A diffraction grating is applied in a strip across the SLM to simulate a slit, with the first diffracted order mapped onto the pupil plane of the objective lens while the zeroth order is blocked. This technique enables real-time control of the beam-shaping parameters during writing, facilitating the fabrication of more complicated structures than is possible using nonadaptive methods. Waveguides are demonstrated in fused silica with a coupling loss to single-mode fibers in the range of 0.2 to 0.5 dB and propagation loss <0.4dB/cm.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011 (2)

2010 (1)

2009 (4)

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2002 (1)

1996 (1)

Ams, M.

Audouard, E.

Beecher, S.

Bellini, N.

Birks, T. A.

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

Bockelt, A. S.

Booth, M.

Cerullo, G.

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[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

Davis, K. M.

de la Cruz, A. R.

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[CrossRef]

Eaton, S.

Emons, M.

Ferrer, A.

Gawelda, W.

Greenaway, A. H.

He, F.

Herman, P.

Hibino, Y.

Hirao, K.

Hui, R.

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[CrossRef]

Huo, G.

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[CrossRef]

Huot, N.

Jesacher, A.

Kar, A. K.

Kohtoku, M.

Laporta, P.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Marangoni, M.

Marshall, G. D.

Mauclair, C.

Y. Zhang, G. Cheng, G. Huo, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, C. Mauclair, R. Stoian, and R. Hui, Laser Phys. 19, 2236 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Mermillod-Blondin, A.

Midorikawa, K.

Miura, K.

Morgner, U.

Nasu, Y.

Ni, J.

Osellame, R.

Palmer, G.

Polli, D.

Pospiech, M.

Puerto, D.

Ramponi, R.

Ramsay, E.

Reid, D. T.

Siegel, J.

Solis, J.

Sosa, M. G.

Spence, D. J.

Steinmann, A.

Stoian, R.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Sugioka, K.

Taccheo, S.

Thayil, A.

Thomson, R. R.

Wang, Y.

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[CrossRef]

Withford, M. J.

Xiong, H.

Xu, H.

Xu, Z.

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[CrossRef]

Zhao, W.

Y. Zhang, G. Cheng, G. Huo, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, C. Mauclair, R. Stoian, and R. Hui, Laser Phys. 19, 2236 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, J. Opt. A 11, 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

Y. Zhang, G. Cheng, G. Huo, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, C. Mauclair, R. Stoian, and R. Hui, Laser Phys. 19, 2236 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (7)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for the adaptive slit beam shaping. Inset, example SLM phase pattern.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

THG images showing cross sections through waveguides written in fused silica using (a) SLM and (b) PS beam shaping. (c), (d) Near-field profiles of the guided mode associated with (a) and (b) for an 825 nm source.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) DIC image of a circular structure, written with and without variation of the slit orientation during fabrication. The THG images show cross sections of the structure at points A and B, while the circular insets indicate the slit orientation at each point. (b) THG image of a structure written changing the MD of the grating on the SLM, thereby altering the writing beam intensity during fabrication. (c) DIC and THG images of a structure created with a smoothly varying cross section by modification of the slit dimensions during fabrication.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Losses for Physical and SLM Slit Beam Shaping

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