Abstract

We propose an optical sensor that allows site-selective detection of a refractive index change occurring due to any infiltration such as a bio-organism in a porous one-dimensional photonic crystal (PC). We use the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) to detect and locate the infiltration. With a localized change in the refractive index, the maximum of the peak EIT transmission shifts, which is determined by tuning the control field frequency. The strong dispersion and the narrowing of the absorption free response associated with EIT within the PC form the basis of such enhanced sensitivity.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals(Springer, 2001).
  2. J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light(Princeton University, 2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  15. M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. G. Arkhipkin and S. A. Myslivets, Quantum Electron. 39, 157 (2009).
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  17. S. Chakrabarti, S. A. Ramakrishna, and H. Wanare, Opt. Express 16, 19504 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

R. V. Nair and R. Vijaya, Prog. Quantum Electron. 34, 89 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Dissanayake, M. Levy, A. A. Jalali, and V. J. Fratello, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 181105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Baker, M. D. Pocha, A. S. P. Chang, D. J. Sirbuly, S. Cabrini, S. D. Dhuey, T. C. Bond, and S. E. Letant, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 113701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. Skorobogatiy, J. Sensors 2009, 524237 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Arkhipkin and S. A. Myslivets, Quantum Electron. 39, 157 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

D. F. Dorfner, T. Hurlimann, T. Zabel, L. H. Frandsen, G. Abstreiter, and J. J. Finley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Chakrabarti, S. A. Ramakrishna, and H. Wanare, Opt. Express 16, 19504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

K. T. Posani, V. Tripathi, S. Annamalai, N. R. Weisse-Bernstein, S. Krishna, R. Perahia, O. Crisafulli, and O. J. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, P. Gottileb, E. Rudolph, J. C. Steiner, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 30, 589 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. E. Letant, B. R. Hart, A. W. van Buuren, and L. J. Terminello, Nat. Mater. 2, 391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Koopmans, C. H. von Bonsdorff, J. Vinjé, D. de Medici, and S. Monroe, FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 26, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 81, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Lakhtakia, M. W. McCall, J. A. Sherwin, Q. H. Wu, and I. J. Hodgkinson, Opt. Commun. 194, 33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. E. Harris, Phys. Today 50 (7), 36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. Saiki, S. Scharf, F. Faloona, K. Mullis, G. Horn, and H. Erlich, Science 230, 1350 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1904 (1)

J. C. Maxwell Garnett, Philos. Trans. Soc. R. London 3, 385 (1904).

Abstreiter, G.

D. F. Dorfner, T. Hurlimann, T. Zabel, L. H. Frandsen, G. Abstreiter, and J. J. Finley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Alimova, A.

Annamalai, S.

K. T. Posani, V. Tripathi, S. Annamalai, N. R. Weisse-Bernstein, S. Krishna, R. Perahia, O. Crisafulli, and O. J. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arkhipkin, V. G.

V. G. Arkhipkin and S. A. Myslivets, Quantum Electron. 39, 157 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baker, S. E.

S. E. Baker, M. D. Pocha, A. S. P. Chang, D. J. Sirbuly, S. Cabrini, S. D. Dhuey, T. C. Bond, and S. E. Letant, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 113701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Benabid, F.

P. S. Light, F. Benabid, F. Couny, M. Maric, and A. N. Luiten, Opt. Lett. 32, 1323 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bond, T. C.

S. E. Baker, M. D. Pocha, A. S. P. Chang, D. J. Sirbuly, S. Cabrini, S. D. Dhuey, T. C. Bond, and S. E. Letant, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 113701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cabrini, S.

S. E. Baker, M. D. Pocha, A. S. P. Chang, D. J. Sirbuly, S. Cabrini, S. D. Dhuey, T. C. Bond, and S. E. Letant, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 113701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chakrabarti, S.

Chang, A. S. P.

S. E. Baker, M. D. Pocha, A. S. P. Chang, D. J. Sirbuly, S. Cabrini, S. D. Dhuey, T. C. Bond, and S. E. Letant, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 113701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Couny, F.

P. S. Light, F. Benabid, F. Couny, M. Maric, and A. N. Luiten, Opt. Lett. 32, 1323 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crisafulli, O.

K. T. Posani, V. Tripathi, S. Annamalai, N. R. Weisse-Bernstein, S. Krishna, R. Perahia, O. Crisafulli, and O. J. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B. T.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 81, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Medici, D.

M. Koopmans, C. H. von Bonsdorff, J. Vinjé, D. de Medici, and S. Monroe, FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 26, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dhuey, S. D.

S. E. Baker, M. D. Pocha, A. S. P. Chang, D. J. Sirbuly, S. Cabrini, S. D. Dhuey, T. C. Bond, and S. E. Letant, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 113701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dissanayake, N. K.

N. K. Dissanayake, M. Levy, A. A. Jalali, and V. J. Fratello, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 181105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dorfner, D. F.

D. F. Dorfner, T. Hurlimann, T. Zabel, L. H. Frandsen, G. Abstreiter, and J. J. Finley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Erlich, H.

R. Saiki, S. Scharf, F. Faloona, K. Mullis, G. Horn, and H. Erlich, Science 230, 1350 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Faloona, F.

R. Saiki, S. Scharf, F. Faloona, K. Mullis, G. Horn, and H. Erlich, Science 230, 1350 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Faucet, P. M.

Finley, J. J.

D. F. Dorfner, T. Hurlimann, T. Zabel, L. H. Frandsen, G. Abstreiter, and J. J. Finley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frandsen, L. H.

D. F. Dorfner, T. Hurlimann, T. Zabel, L. H. Frandsen, G. Abstreiter, and J. J. Finley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fratello, V. J.

N. K. Dissanayake, M. Levy, A. A. Jalali, and V. J. Fratello, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 181105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gottileb, P.

Harris, S. E.

S. E. Harris, Phys. Today 50 (7), 36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hart, B. R.

S. E. Letant, B. R. Hart, A. W. van Buuren, and L. J. Terminello, Nat. Mater. 2, 391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hodgkinson, I. J.

A. Lakhtakia, M. W. McCall, J. A. Sherwin, Q. H. Wu, and I. J. Hodgkinson, Opt. Commun. 194, 33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Horn, G.

R. Saiki, S. Scharf, F. Faloona, K. Mullis, G. Horn, and H. Erlich, Science 230, 1350 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hurlimann, T.

D. F. Dorfner, T. Hurlimann, T. Zabel, L. H. Frandsen, G. Abstreiter, and J. J. Finley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Imamoglu, A.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, A. A.

N. K. Dissanayake, M. Levy, A. A. Jalali, and V. J. Fratello, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 181105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light(Princeton University, 2008).

Johnson, S. G.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light(Princeton University, 2008).

Katz, A.

Knight, J. C.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koopmans, M.

M. Koopmans, C. H. von Bonsdorff, J. Vinjé, D. de Medici, and S. Monroe, FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 26, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krishna, S.

K. T. Posani, V. Tripathi, S. Annamalai, N. R. Weisse-Bernstein, S. Krishna, R. Perahia, O. Crisafulli, and O. J. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lakhtakia, A.

A. Lakhtakia, M. W. McCall, J. A. Sherwin, Q. H. Wu, and I. J. Hodgkinson, Opt. Commun. 194, 33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. R.

Letant, S. E.

S. E. Baker, M. D. Pocha, A. S. P. Chang, D. J. Sirbuly, S. Cabrini, S. D. Dhuey, T. C. Bond, and S. E. Letant, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 113701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Letant, B. R. Hart, A. W. van Buuren, and L. J. Terminello, Nat. Mater. 2, 391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Levy, M.

N. K. Dissanayake, M. Levy, A. A. Jalali, and V. J. Fratello, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 181105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 81, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Light, P. S.

Lin, B.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 81, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luiten, A. N.

Marangos, J. P.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maric, M.

Maxwell Garnett, J. C.

J. C. Maxwell Garnett, Philos. Trans. Soc. R. London 3, 385 (1904).

McCall, M. W.

A. Lakhtakia, M. W. McCall, J. A. Sherwin, Q. H. Wu, and I. J. Hodgkinson, Opt. Commun. 194, 33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light(Princeton University, 2008).

Monroe, S.

M. Koopmans, C. H. von Bonsdorff, J. Vinjé, D. de Medici, and S. Monroe, FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 26, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mullis, K.

R. Saiki, S. Scharf, F. Faloona, K. Mullis, G. Horn, and H. Erlich, Science 230, 1350 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Myslivets, S. A.

V. G. Arkhipkin and S. A. Myslivets, Quantum Electron. 39, 157 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nair, R. V.

R. V. Nair and R. Vijaya, Prog. Quantum Electron. 34, 89 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O. J.

K. T. Posani, V. Tripathi, S. Annamalai, N. R. Weisse-Bernstein, S. Krishna, R. Perahia, O. Crisafulli, and O. J. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, J.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 81, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Perahia, R.

K. T. Posani, V. Tripathi, S. Annamalai, N. R. Weisse-Bernstein, S. Krishna, R. Perahia, O. Crisafulli, and O. J. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pocha, M. D.

S. E. Baker, M. D. Pocha, A. S. P. Chang, D. J. Sirbuly, S. Cabrini, S. D. Dhuey, T. C. Bond, and S. E. Letant, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 113701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Posani, K. T.

K. T. Posani, V. Tripathi, S. Annamalai, N. R. Weisse-Bernstein, S. Krishna, R. Perahia, O. Crisafulli, and O. J. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ramakrishna, S. A.

Rudolph, E.

Saiki, R.

R. Saiki, S. Scharf, F. Faloona, K. Mullis, G. Horn, and H. Erlich, Science 230, 1350 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sakoda, K.

K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals(Springer, 2001).

Scharf, S.

R. Saiki, S. Scharf, F. Faloona, K. Mullis, G. Horn, and H. Erlich, Science 230, 1350 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sherwin, J. A.

A. Lakhtakia, M. W. McCall, J. A. Sherwin, Q. H. Wu, and I. J. Hodgkinson, Opt. Commun. 194, 33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sirbuly, D. J.

S. E. Baker, M. D. Pocha, A. S. P. Chang, D. J. Sirbuly, S. Cabrini, S. D. Dhuey, T. C. Bond, and S. E. Letant, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 113701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Skorobogatiy, M.

M. Skorobogatiy, J. Sensors 2009, 524237 (2009).
[CrossRef]

St. J. Russell, P.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steiner, J. C.

Terminello, L. J.

S. E. Letant, B. R. Hart, A. W. van Buuren, and L. J. Terminello, Nat. Mater. 2, 391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tripathi, V.

K. T. Posani, V. Tripathi, S. Annamalai, N. R. Weisse-Bernstein, S. Krishna, R. Perahia, O. Crisafulli, and O. J. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Buuren, A. W.

S. E. Letant, B. R. Hart, A. W. van Buuren, and L. J. Terminello, Nat. Mater. 2, 391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vijaya, R.

R. V. Nair and R. Vijaya, Prog. Quantum Electron. 34, 89 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vinjé, J.

M. Koopmans, C. H. von Bonsdorff, J. Vinjé, D. de Medici, and S. Monroe, FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 26, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

von Bonsdorff, C. H.

M. Koopmans, C. H. von Bonsdorff, J. Vinjé, D. de Medici, and S. Monroe, FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 26, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wanare, H.

Weisse-Bernstein, N. R.

K. T. Posani, V. Tripathi, S. Annamalai, N. R. Weisse-Bernstein, S. Krishna, R. Perahia, O. Crisafulli, and O. J. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light(Princeton University, 2008).

Wu, Q. H.

A. Lakhtakia, M. W. McCall, J. A. Sherwin, Q. H. Wu, and I. J. Hodgkinson, Opt. Commun. 194, 33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M.

Zabel, T.

D. F. Dorfner, T. Hurlimann, T. Zabel, L. H. Frandsen, G. Abstreiter, and J. J. Finley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

N. K. Dissanayake, M. Levy, A. A. Jalali, and V. J. Fratello, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 181105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Posani, V. Tripathi, S. Annamalai, N. R. Weisse-Bernstein, S. Krishna, R. Perahia, O. Crisafulli, and O. J. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Baker, M. D. Pocha, A. S. P. Chang, D. J. Sirbuly, S. Cabrini, S. D. Dhuey, T. C. Bond, and S. E. Letant, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 113701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Dorfner, T. Hurlimann, T. Zabel, L. H. Frandsen, G. Abstreiter, and J. J. Finley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (1)

M. Koopmans, C. H. von Bonsdorff, J. Vinjé, D. de Medici, and S. Monroe, FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 26, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Sensors (1)

M. Skorobogatiy, J. Sensors 2009, 524237 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. E. Letant, B. R. Hart, A. W. van Buuren, and L. J. Terminello, Nat. Mater. 2, 391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Lakhtakia, M. W. McCall, J. A. Sherwin, Q. H. Wu, and I. J. Hodgkinson, Opt. Commun. 194, 33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Philos. Trans. Soc. R. London (1)

J. C. Maxwell Garnett, Philos. Trans. Soc. R. London 3, 385 (1904).

Phys. Today (1)

S. E. Harris, Phys. Today 50 (7), 36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. V. Nair and R. Vijaya, Prog. Quantum Electron. 34, 89 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron. (1)

V. G. Arkhipkin and S. A. Myslivets, Quantum Electron. 39, 157 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. Saiki, S. Scharf, F. Faloona, K. Mullis, G. Horn, and H. Erlich, Science 230, 1350 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 81, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals(Springer, 2001).

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light(Princeton University, 2008).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(Top) Schematic of the 1D PC structure. Layers E, B, D, and A denote the EIT medium, dielectric medium, defect layer, and air, respectively. The numbers denote the unit cells. (Bottom) Level scheme associated with the coherent EIT medium where the control (green) and the probe (red) fields couple neighboring transitions with detuning (Δc and Δp) and the decays (γi) as shown.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The dashed curve indicates the transmission associated with the defect mode without EIT, and the colored peaks indicate the EIT peaks (for Δc=0, 1.3, 2.65, 3.97 in the red, green, and purple curves, respectively) mimicking the defect mode profile. The frequency axis is in units of γp/5.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission of the probe field through the PC structure in absence of the bio-organism (red, Δc=0), and in the presence of the bio-organism at site 14 (blue, Δc8). The frequency axis is in units of γp/5=1011Hz.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Frequency shift of the maximum of the EIT transmission (blue dots, with the left ordinate) due to the infiltration of the bio-organism at various sites, and the green squares, with the right ordinate indicate the sensitivity Δν/Δn. The frequency shift (Δν) is in units of γp/5=1011Hz.

Equations (1)

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ϵE=ϵb+κγp+γc+iΔp+Ω2γoi(ΔcΔp),

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