Abstract

The design and fabrication of an ultracompact silicon-on-insulator polarization converter is reported. The polarization conversion with an extinction ratio of 16 dB is achieved for a conversion length of only 10 μm. Polarization rotation is achieved by inducing a vertical asymmetry by forming in the waveguide core two subwavelength trenches of different depths. By taking advantage of the calibrated reactive ion etch lag, the two depths are implemented using a single mask and etching process. The measured converter loss is 0.7dB and the 3 dB bandwidth is 26 nm.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Brooks, P. E. Jessop, H. Deng, D. O. Yevick, and G. Tarr, Opt. Eng. 45, 044603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Holmes and D. C. Hutchings, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Basak, J.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2008), pp. 368–370.

Beausoleil, R. G.

Bock, P. J.

Bogaerts, W.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, and G. Roelkens, presented at the Seventh International Conference on Group IV Photonics, Beijing, China, 2010, paper WC6

Bowers, J. E.

Brooks, C.

C. Brooks, P. E. Jessop, H. Deng, D. O. Yevick, and G. Tarr, Opt. Eng. 45, 044603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

Chetrit, Y.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2008), pp. 368–370.

Dai, D.

Delâge, A.

Deng, H.

C. Brooks, P. E. Jessop, H. Deng, D. O. Yevick, and G. Tarr, Opt. Eng. 45, 044603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Densmore, A.

Ding, Y.

Foster, M. A.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V.

D. M. H. Leung, B. M. A. Rahman, and K. T. V. Grattan, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 381 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hall, T. J.

Holmes, B. M.

B. M. Holmes and D. C. Hutchings, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hutchings, D. C.

B. M. Holmes and D. C. Hutchings, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hvam, J. M.

Janz, S.

Jessop, P. E.

C. Brooks, P. E. Jessop, H. Deng, D. O. Yevick, and G. Tarr, Opt. Eng. 45, 044603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

Kwong, D. L.

Lamontagne, B.

Lapointe, J.

Leung, D. M. H.

D. M. H. Leung, B. M. A. Rahman, and K. T. V. Grattan, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 381 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2008), pp. 368–370.

Liow, T. Y.

Lipson, M.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2008), pp. 368–370.

Liu, L.

Lo, G. Q.

Mizumoto, T.

Nakano, H.

Nguyen, H.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2008), pp. 368–370.

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2008), pp. 368–370.

Post, E.

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Opt. Express 15, 2299 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, B. M. A.

D. M. H. Leung, B. M. A. Rahman, and K. T. V. Grattan, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 381 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, and G. Roelkens, presented at the Seventh International Conference on Group IV Photonics, Beijing, China, 2010, paper WC6

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2008), pp. 368–370.

Schmid, J. H.

Schmidt, B. S.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Selvaraja, S.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, and G. Roelkens, presented at the Seventh International Conference on Group IV Photonics, Beijing, China, 2010, paper WC6

Sharping, J. E.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, Y.

Song, M.

Takei, R.

Tarr, G.

C. Brooks, P. E. Jessop, H. Deng, D. O. Yevick, and G. Tarr, Opt. Eng. 45, 044603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A. C.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vermeulen, D.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, and G. Roelkens, presented at the Seventh International Conference on Group IV Photonics, Beijing, China, 2010, paper WC6

Waldron, P.

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Opt. Express 15, 2299 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

Xu, D.-X.

Yamanoue, M.

Yamauchi, J.

Yevick, D. O.

C. Brooks, P. E. Jessop, H. Deng, D. O. Yevick, and G. Tarr, Opt. Eng. 45, 044603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.

Yue, Y.

Yvind, K.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, L.

IEEE Photon. J.

D. M. H. Leung, B. M. A. Rahman, and K. T. V. Grattan, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 381 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

B. M. Holmes and D. C. Hutchings, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nature

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

C. Brooks, P. E. Jessop, H. Deng, D. O. Yevick, and G. Tarr, Opt. Eng. 45, 044603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2008), pp. 368–370.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, and G. Roelkens, presented at the Seventh International Conference on Group IV Photonics, Beijing, China, 2010, paper WC6

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic structure of the proposed polarization converter. (Inset, color online) Simulated contour plot of the (a) X and (b) Y components of the field of the first hybrid mode for a dual-trench structure with trench widths 60 nm and 85 nm and trench depths 210 nm and 235 nm, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Combinations of trench depths (D1, D2) that yield hybrid modes with 45° offset, for different combinations of trench widths (W1, W2). (b) L1/2 versus depth of the first trench and (c) L1/2 versus width of the first trench, for parameter combinations yielding hybrid modes with 45° offset.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM of the fabricated dual-trench polarization converter. (Inset) Etch depth versus gap width due to RIE lag effect.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured ER versus wavelength of the fabricated device for TE to TM (black) and TM to TE (gray) mode conversion.

Equations (2)

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L1/2=πΔβ,
ERTE-TM=10·logPTMPTE,

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