Abstract

We report an all-fiber-optic scanning, multimodal endomicroscope capable of simultaneous optical coherence tomography (OCT) and two-photon fluorescence (TPF) imaging. Both imaging modalities share the same miniature fiber-optic scanning endomicroscope, which consists of a double-clad fiber with a core operating in single mode at both the OCT (1310 nm) and two-photon excitation (1550 nm) wavelengths, a piezoelectric two-dimensional fiber-optic beam scanner, and a miniature aspherical compound lens suitable for simultaneous acquisition of en face OCT and TPF images. A fiber-optic wavelength division multiplexer was employed in the integrated platform to combine the low coherence OCT light source and the femtosecond two-photon excitation laser into the same optical path. Preliminary imaging results of cell cultures and mouse tissue ex vivo demonstrate the feasibility of simultaneous real-time OCT and TPF imaging in a scanning endomicroscopy setting for the first time.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (2)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

V. B. Rodriguez, S. M. Henry, A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, X. D. Li, and S. H. Pun, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

1999 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Amblard, F.

Beaurepaire, E.

Boppart, S. A.

S. A. Boppart, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Complex Medical Engineering (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–7.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y. P.

Y. P. Chen and X. D. Li, Biomacromolecules 12, 4367 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

S. Tang, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. TrombergJ. Biomed. Opt. 11, 020502.
[CrossRef]

Cobb, M. J.

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Henry, S. M.

V. B. Rodriguez, S. M. Henry, A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, X. D. Li, and S. H. Pun, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, A. S.

V. B. Rodriguez, S. M. Henry, A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, X. D. Li, and S. H. Pun, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huo, L.

Kimmey, M. B.

Krasieva, T. B.

S. Tang, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. TrombergJ. Biomed. Opt. 11, 020502.
[CrossRef]

Leng, Y.

Li, M.-J.

Li, S.

Li, X. D.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. M.

MacDonald, D. J.

Mertz, J.

Moreaux, L.

Murari, K.

Myaing, M. T.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pun, S. H.

V. B. Rodriguez, S. M. Henry, A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, X. D. Li, and S. H. Pun, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, V. B.

V. B. Rodriguez, S. M. Henry, A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, X. D. Li, and S. H. Pun, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stayton, P. S.

V. B. Rodriguez, S. M. Henry, A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, X. D. Li, and S. H. Pun, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tang, S.

S. Tang, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. TrombergJ. Biomed. Opt. 11, 020502.
[CrossRef]

Tromberg, B. J.

S. Tang, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. TrombergJ. Biomed. Opt. 11, 020502.
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Wu, Y. C.

Xi, J. F.

Zhang, Y.

Biomacromolecules (1)

Y. P. Chen and X. D. Li, Biomacromolecules 12, 4367 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

S. Tang, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. TrombergJ. Biomed. Opt. 11, 020502.
[CrossRef]

V. B. Rodriguez, S. M. Henry, A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, X. D. Li, and S. H. Pun, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Science (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. A. Boppart, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Complex Medical Engineering (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–7.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of TPF/OCT multimodal endomicroscope system. BD, balanced detector; C, circulator; CL, coupling lens; DCF, double-clad fiber; DM, dichroic mirror; ENDO, miniature endoscope; EOM, electro-optic modulator; FC, fiber coupler; LP, long pass filter; M, mirror; PMT, photomultiplier tube; RSOD, rapid scanning optical delay line; WDM, wavelength division multiplexer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) OCT and (b) TPF images of A431 cancer cells immunostained with anti-EGFR conjugated ICG micelles. (c) Superposition of the OCT and TPF images.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) OCT, (b) TPF, and (c) superposed images of mouse adipose tissue with local ICG administration. Each red arrow in (a) and (b) indicates one of the adipocytes visualized under both imaging modalities. (d) OCT, (e) TPF, and (f) superposed images of mouse small intestine tissue with local ICG administration. Blue arrows (right downward) shown in (d) and (e) indicate villus structures and red arrows (left downward) indicate lacteals. The stronger fluorescence dots indicated by yellow arrows at center shown in (e) may be either enterocytes or lymphocytes. Both sets of images show great correlation between two imaging modalities.

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