Abstract

We report observations of photoconductivity in ultrathin films of LaAlO3 grown on (001) SrTiO3 at several deposition temperatures. The films show pronounced metallic behavior in the dark. The conductance of this metallic state can be enhanced by ultraviolet light (350–400 nm) of a few μW/cm2 intensity. The decay of the photoconducting state follows stretched exponential dynamics, which can be accelerated or slowed down on the application of gate voltage, thus imparting a novel functionality to the system.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Ohtomo and H. Y. Hwang, Nature 427, 423 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Yoshimatsu, R. Yasuhara, H. Kumigashira, and M. Oshima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 026802 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. H. L. Störmer, R. Dingle, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, and M. D. Sturge, Solid State Commun. 29, 705 (1979).
    [CrossRef]

2010

J. Biscaras, N. Bergeal, A. Kushwaha, T. Wolf, A. Rastogi, R. C. Budhani, and J. Lesueur, Nat. Commun. 1, 89 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Rastogi, A. K. Kushwaha, T. Shiyani, A. Gangawar, and R. C. Budhani, Adv. Mater. 22, 4448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

C. Cen, S. Thiel, J. Mannhart, and J. Levy, Science 323, 1026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

E. Arslan, S. Bütün, S. B. Lisesivdin, M. Kasap, S. Ozcelik, and E. Ozbay, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103701 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshimatsu, R. Yasuhara, H. Kumigashira, and M. Oshima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 026802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

N. Reyren, S. Thiel, A. D. Caviglia, L. Fitting Kourkoutis, G. Hammerl, C. Richter, C. W. Schneider, T. Kopp, A.-S. Rüetschi, D. Jaccard, M. Gabay, D. A. Muller, J.-M. Triscone, and J. Mannhart, Science 317, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Siemons, G. Koster, H. Yamamoto, T. H. Geballe, D. H. A. Blank, and M. R. Beasley, Phys. Rev. B 76, 155111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Ohtomo and H. Y. Hwang, Nature 441, 120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Huijben, G. Rijnders, D. H. A. Blank, S. Bals, S. Van Aert, J. Verbeeck, G. Van Tendeloo, A. Brunkman, and H. Hilgenkamp, Nat. Mater. 5, 556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Thiel, G. Hammerl, A. Schmehl, C. W. Schneider, and J. Mannhart, Science 313, 1942 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Ohtomo and H. Y. Hwang, Nature 427, 423 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1984

R. G. Palmer, D. L. Stein, E. Abrahams, and P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 958 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Chamberlin, G. Mozurkewich, and R. Orbach, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 867 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1979

H. L. Störmer, R. Dingle, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, and M. D. Sturge, Solid State Commun. 29, 705 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1847

R. Kohlrausch, Ann. Phys. 12, 393 (1847).

Abrahams, E.

R. G. Palmer, D. L. Stein, E. Abrahams, and P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 958 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, P. W.

R. G. Palmer, D. L. Stein, E. Abrahams, and P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 958 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Arslan, E.

E. Arslan, S. Bütün, S. B. Lisesivdin, M. Kasap, S. Ozcelik, and E. Ozbay, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103701 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bals, S.

M. Huijben, G. Rijnders, D. H. A. Blank, S. Bals, S. Van Aert, J. Verbeeck, G. Van Tendeloo, A. Brunkman, and H. Hilgenkamp, Nat. Mater. 5, 556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beasley, M. R.

W. Siemons, G. Koster, H. Yamamoto, T. H. Geballe, D. H. A. Blank, and M. R. Beasley, Phys. Rev. B 76, 155111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bergeal, N.

J. Biscaras, N. Bergeal, A. Kushwaha, T. Wolf, A. Rastogi, R. C. Budhani, and J. Lesueur, Nat. Commun. 1, 89 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biscaras, J.

J. Biscaras, N. Bergeal, A. Kushwaha, T. Wolf, A. Rastogi, R. C. Budhani, and J. Lesueur, Nat. Commun. 1, 89 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Blank, D. H. A.

W. Siemons, G. Koster, H. Yamamoto, T. H. Geballe, D. H. A. Blank, and M. R. Beasley, Phys. Rev. B 76, 155111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Huijben, G. Rijnders, D. H. A. Blank, S. Bals, S. Van Aert, J. Verbeeck, G. Van Tendeloo, A. Brunkman, and H. Hilgenkamp, Nat. Mater. 5, 556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brunkman, A.

M. Huijben, G. Rijnders, D. H. A. Blank, S. Bals, S. Van Aert, J. Verbeeck, G. Van Tendeloo, A. Brunkman, and H. Hilgenkamp, Nat. Mater. 5, 556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Budhani, R. C.

J. Biscaras, N. Bergeal, A. Kushwaha, T. Wolf, A. Rastogi, R. C. Budhani, and J. Lesueur, Nat. Commun. 1, 89 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Rastogi, A. K. Kushwaha, T. Shiyani, A. Gangawar, and R. C. Budhani, Adv. Mater. 22, 4448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bütün, S.

E. Arslan, S. Bütün, S. B. Lisesivdin, M. Kasap, S. Ozcelik, and E. Ozbay, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103701 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Caviglia, A. D.

N. Reyren, S. Thiel, A. D. Caviglia, L. Fitting Kourkoutis, G. Hammerl, C. Richter, C. W. Schneider, T. Kopp, A.-S. Rüetschi, D. Jaccard, M. Gabay, D. A. Muller, J.-M. Triscone, and J. Mannhart, Science 317, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cen, C.

C. Cen, S. Thiel, J. Mannhart, and J. Levy, Science 323, 1026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chamberlin, R. V.

R. V. Chamberlin, G. Mozurkewich, and R. Orbach, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 867 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dingle, R.

H. L. Störmer, R. Dingle, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, and M. D. Sturge, Solid State Commun. 29, 705 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Fitting Kourkoutis, L.

N. Reyren, S. Thiel, A. D. Caviglia, L. Fitting Kourkoutis, G. Hammerl, C. Richter, C. W. Schneider, T. Kopp, A.-S. Rüetschi, D. Jaccard, M. Gabay, D. A. Muller, J.-M. Triscone, and J. Mannhart, Science 317, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gabay, M.

N. Reyren, S. Thiel, A. D. Caviglia, L. Fitting Kourkoutis, G. Hammerl, C. Richter, C. W. Schneider, T. Kopp, A.-S. Rüetschi, D. Jaccard, M. Gabay, D. A. Muller, J.-M. Triscone, and J. Mannhart, Science 317, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gangawar, A.

A. Rastogi, A. K. Kushwaha, T. Shiyani, A. Gangawar, and R. C. Budhani, Adv. Mater. 22, 4448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Geballe, T. H.

W. Siemons, G. Koster, H. Yamamoto, T. H. Geballe, D. H. A. Blank, and M. R. Beasley, Phys. Rev. B 76, 155111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

H. L. Störmer, R. Dingle, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, and M. D. Sturge, Solid State Commun. 29, 705 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hammerl, G.

N. Reyren, S. Thiel, A. D. Caviglia, L. Fitting Kourkoutis, G. Hammerl, C. Richter, C. W. Schneider, T. Kopp, A.-S. Rüetschi, D. Jaccard, M. Gabay, D. A. Muller, J.-M. Triscone, and J. Mannhart, Science 317, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Thiel, G. Hammerl, A. Schmehl, C. W. Schneider, and J. Mannhart, Science 313, 1942 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hilgenkamp, H.

M. Huijben, G. Rijnders, D. H. A. Blank, S. Bals, S. Van Aert, J. Verbeeck, G. Van Tendeloo, A. Brunkman, and H. Hilgenkamp, Nat. Mater. 5, 556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huijben, M.

M. Huijben, G. Rijnders, D. H. A. Blank, S. Bals, S. Van Aert, J. Verbeeck, G. Van Tendeloo, A. Brunkman, and H. Hilgenkamp, Nat. Mater. 5, 556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, H. Y.

A. Ohtomo and H. Y. Hwang, Nature 441, 120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ohtomo and H. Y. Hwang, Nature 427, 423 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jaccard, D.

N. Reyren, S. Thiel, A. D. Caviglia, L. Fitting Kourkoutis, G. Hammerl, C. Richter, C. W. Schneider, T. Kopp, A.-S. Rüetschi, D. Jaccard, M. Gabay, D. A. Muller, J.-M. Triscone, and J. Mannhart, Science 317, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kasap, M.

E. Arslan, S. Bütün, S. B. Lisesivdin, M. Kasap, S. Ozcelik, and E. Ozbay, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103701 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kohlrausch, R.

R. Kohlrausch, Ann. Phys. 12, 393 (1847).

Kopp, T.

N. Reyren, S. Thiel, A. D. Caviglia, L. Fitting Kourkoutis, G. Hammerl, C. Richter, C. W. Schneider, T. Kopp, A.-S. Rüetschi, D. Jaccard, M. Gabay, D. A. Muller, J.-M. Triscone, and J. Mannhart, Science 317, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koster, G.

W. Siemons, G. Koster, H. Yamamoto, T. H. Geballe, D. H. A. Blank, and M. R. Beasley, Phys. Rev. B 76, 155111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kumigashira, H.

K. Yoshimatsu, R. Yasuhara, H. Kumigashira, and M. Oshima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 026802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kushwaha, A.

J. Biscaras, N. Bergeal, A. Kushwaha, T. Wolf, A. Rastogi, R. C. Budhani, and J. Lesueur, Nat. Commun. 1, 89 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kushwaha, A. K.

A. Rastogi, A. K. Kushwaha, T. Shiyani, A. Gangawar, and R. C. Budhani, Adv. Mater. 22, 4448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lesueur, J.

J. Biscaras, N. Bergeal, A. Kushwaha, T. Wolf, A. Rastogi, R. C. Budhani, and J. Lesueur, Nat. Commun. 1, 89 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Levy, J.

C. Cen, S. Thiel, J. Mannhart, and J. Levy, Science 323, 1026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lisesivdin, S. B.

E. Arslan, S. Bütün, S. B. Lisesivdin, M. Kasap, S. Ozcelik, and E. Ozbay, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103701 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mannhart, J.

C. Cen, S. Thiel, J. Mannhart, and J. Levy, Science 323, 1026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Reyren, S. Thiel, A. D. Caviglia, L. Fitting Kourkoutis, G. Hammerl, C. Richter, C. W. Schneider, T. Kopp, A.-S. Rüetschi, D. Jaccard, M. Gabay, D. A. Muller, J.-M. Triscone, and J. Mannhart, Science 317, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Thiel, G. Hammerl, A. Schmehl, C. W. Schneider, and J. Mannhart, Science 313, 1942 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mozurkewich, G.

R. V. Chamberlin, G. Mozurkewich, and R. Orbach, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 867 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Muller, D. A.

N. Reyren, S. Thiel, A. D. Caviglia, L. Fitting Kourkoutis, G. Hammerl, C. Richter, C. W. Schneider, T. Kopp, A.-S. Rüetschi, D. Jaccard, M. Gabay, D. A. Muller, J.-M. Triscone, and J. Mannhart, Science 317, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohtomo, A.

A. Ohtomo and H. Y. Hwang, Nature 441, 120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ohtomo and H. Y. Hwang, Nature 427, 423 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Orbach, R.

R. V. Chamberlin, G. Mozurkewich, and R. Orbach, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 867 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Oshima, M.

K. Yoshimatsu, R. Yasuhara, H. Kumigashira, and M. Oshima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 026802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

E. Arslan, S. Bütün, S. B. Lisesivdin, M. Kasap, S. Ozcelik, and E. Ozbay, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103701 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ozcelik, S.

E. Arslan, S. Bütün, S. B. Lisesivdin, M. Kasap, S. Ozcelik, and E. Ozbay, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103701 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, R. G.

R. G. Palmer, D. L. Stein, E. Abrahams, and P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 958 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rastogi, A.

A. Rastogi, A. K. Kushwaha, T. Shiyani, A. Gangawar, and R. C. Budhani, Adv. Mater. 22, 4448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Biscaras, N. Bergeal, A. Kushwaha, T. Wolf, A. Rastogi, R. C. Budhani, and J. Lesueur, Nat. Commun. 1, 89 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reyren, N.

N. Reyren, S. Thiel, A. D. Caviglia, L. Fitting Kourkoutis, G. Hammerl, C. Richter, C. W. Schneider, T. Kopp, A.-S. Rüetschi, D. Jaccard, M. Gabay, D. A. Muller, J.-M. Triscone, and J. Mannhart, Science 317, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Richter, C.

N. Reyren, S. Thiel, A. D. Caviglia, L. Fitting Kourkoutis, G. Hammerl, C. Richter, C. W. Schneider, T. Kopp, A.-S. Rüetschi, D. Jaccard, M. Gabay, D. A. Muller, J.-M. Triscone, and J. Mannhart, Science 317, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rijnders, G.

M. Huijben, G. Rijnders, D. H. A. Blank, S. Bals, S. Van Aert, J. Verbeeck, G. Van Tendeloo, A. Brunkman, and H. Hilgenkamp, Nat. Mater. 5, 556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rüetschi, A.-S.

N. Reyren, S. Thiel, A. D. Caviglia, L. Fitting Kourkoutis, G. Hammerl, C. Richter, C. W. Schneider, T. Kopp, A.-S. Rüetschi, D. Jaccard, M. Gabay, D. A. Muller, J.-M. Triscone, and J. Mannhart, Science 317, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmehl, A.

S. Thiel, G. Hammerl, A. Schmehl, C. W. Schneider, and J. Mannhart, Science 313, 1942 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, C. W.

N. Reyren, S. Thiel, A. D. Caviglia, L. Fitting Kourkoutis, G. Hammerl, C. Richter, C. W. Schneider, T. Kopp, A.-S. Rüetschi, D. Jaccard, M. Gabay, D. A. Muller, J.-M. Triscone, and J. Mannhart, Science 317, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Thiel, G. Hammerl, A. Schmehl, C. W. Schneider, and J. Mannhart, Science 313, 1942 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shiyani, T.

A. Rastogi, A. K. Kushwaha, T. Shiyani, A. Gangawar, and R. C. Budhani, Adv. Mater. 22, 4448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Siemons, W.

W. Siemons, G. Koster, H. Yamamoto, T. H. Geballe, D. H. A. Blank, and M. R. Beasley, Phys. Rev. B 76, 155111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stein, D. L.

R. G. Palmer, D. L. Stein, E. Abrahams, and P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 958 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Störmer, H. L.

H. L. Störmer, R. Dingle, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, and M. D. Sturge, Solid State Commun. 29, 705 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sturge, M. D.

H. L. Störmer, R. Dingle, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, and M. D. Sturge, Solid State Commun. 29, 705 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Thiel, S.

C. Cen, S. Thiel, J. Mannhart, and J. Levy, Science 323, 1026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Reyren, S. Thiel, A. D. Caviglia, L. Fitting Kourkoutis, G. Hammerl, C. Richter, C. W. Schneider, T. Kopp, A.-S. Rüetschi, D. Jaccard, M. Gabay, D. A. Muller, J.-M. Triscone, and J. Mannhart, Science 317, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Thiel, G. Hammerl, A. Schmehl, C. W. Schneider, and J. Mannhart, Science 313, 1942 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Triscone, J.-M.

N. Reyren, S. Thiel, A. D. Caviglia, L. Fitting Kourkoutis, G. Hammerl, C. Richter, C. W. Schneider, T. Kopp, A.-S. Rüetschi, D. Jaccard, M. Gabay, D. A. Muller, J.-M. Triscone, and J. Mannhart, Science 317, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Aert, S.

M. Huijben, G. Rijnders, D. H. A. Blank, S. Bals, S. Van Aert, J. Verbeeck, G. Van Tendeloo, A. Brunkman, and H. Hilgenkamp, Nat. Mater. 5, 556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van Tendeloo, G.

M. Huijben, G. Rijnders, D. H. A. Blank, S. Bals, S. Van Aert, J. Verbeeck, G. Van Tendeloo, A. Brunkman, and H. Hilgenkamp, Nat. Mater. 5, 556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Verbeeck, J.

M. Huijben, G. Rijnders, D. H. A. Blank, S. Bals, S. Van Aert, J. Verbeeck, G. Van Tendeloo, A. Brunkman, and H. Hilgenkamp, Nat. Mater. 5, 556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wiegmann, W.

H. L. Störmer, R. Dingle, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, and M. D. Sturge, Solid State Commun. 29, 705 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, T.

J. Biscaras, N. Bergeal, A. Kushwaha, T. Wolf, A. Rastogi, R. C. Budhani, and J. Lesueur, Nat. Commun. 1, 89 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, H.

W. Siemons, G. Koster, H. Yamamoto, T. H. Geballe, D. H. A. Blank, and M. R. Beasley, Phys. Rev. B 76, 155111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yasuhara, R.

K. Yoshimatsu, R. Yasuhara, H. Kumigashira, and M. Oshima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 026802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimatsu, K.

K. Yoshimatsu, R. Yasuhara, H. Kumigashira, and M. Oshima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 026802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

A. Rastogi, A. K. Kushwaha, T. Shiyani, A. Gangawar, and R. C. Budhani, Adv. Mater. 22, 4448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys.

R. Kohlrausch, Ann. Phys. 12, 393 (1847).

J. Appl. Phys.

E. Arslan, S. Bütün, S. B. Lisesivdin, M. Kasap, S. Ozcelik, and E. Ozbay, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103701 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun.

J. Biscaras, N. Bergeal, A. Kushwaha, T. Wolf, A. Rastogi, R. C. Budhani, and J. Lesueur, Nat. Commun. 1, 89 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

M. Huijben, G. Rijnders, D. H. A. Blank, S. Bals, S. Van Aert, J. Verbeeck, G. Van Tendeloo, A. Brunkman, and H. Hilgenkamp, Nat. Mater. 5, 556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

A. Ohtomo and H. Y. Hwang, Nature 427, 423 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ohtomo and H. Y. Hwang, Nature 441, 120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

W. Siemons, G. Koster, H. Yamamoto, T. H. Geballe, D. H. A. Blank, and M. R. Beasley, Phys. Rev. B 76, 155111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

K. Yoshimatsu, R. Yasuhara, H. Kumigashira, and M. Oshima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 026802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Palmer, D. L. Stein, E. Abrahams, and P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 958 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Chamberlin, G. Mozurkewich, and R. Orbach, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 867 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Science

C. Cen, S. Thiel, J. Mannhart, and J. Levy, Science 323, 1026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Reyren, S. Thiel, A. D. Caviglia, L. Fitting Kourkoutis, G. Hammerl, C. Richter, C. W. Schneider, T. Kopp, A.-S. Rüetschi, D. Jaccard, M. Gabay, D. A. Muller, J.-M. Triscone, and J. Mannhart, Science 317, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Thiel, G. Hammerl, A. Schmehl, C. W. Schneider, and J. Mannhart, Science 313, 1942 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun.

H. L. Störmer, R. Dingle, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, and M. D. Sturge, Solid State Commun. 29, 705 (1979).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Change in the channel resistance at 300 K as a function of light intensity. The times at which photo-exposure was turned on and turned off are shown in the figure. The integral UV component (350 to 400 nm) of the light intensity varies from 4 to 40μW/cm2. The inset shows the relative change in resistance on the way to recovery after turning off the UV light of 8μW/cm2 intensity. The measurement has been done at several temperatures between 20 K and 300 K. The solid lines in the figure are fits to the formula ΔR/RDexp[(t/τ)β], with τ and β as fitting parameters.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Variation of the fitting parameters: the critical exponent (β) and relaxation time (τ) are shown (a) as a function of the integrated UV component of the light intensity and (b) as a function of temperature for constant intensity (I8μW/cm2).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Variation of the relative change in resistance ΔR/RD with time for 8 nm thick LTO (open symbols) and LAO (filled symbols) deposited at different temperatures on (100) STO. These measurements were done at room temperature.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Resistance of the LAO/STO channel plotted as a function of time. The device was exposed to light flux at t1. The photo-exposure was switched off at t2, while a gate field of ±1kV/cm was applied at t3. The figure also shows the case in which no gate voltage was used. The time line t4 corresponds to the situation when the gate field was turned off.

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