Abstract

An optical lens array whose focal length and lens pitch can be varied by acoustic radiation force was investigated. It has no mechanical moving parts and a simple structure that consists of a glass plate, four ultrasound transducers, and a viscoelastic film. A lens array can be formed by generating acoustic radiation force through flexural vibrations of the glass plate. Its focal length can be controlled by varying the voltage applied to the transducers and the lens pitch can be altered by changing the driving frequency.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012

D. Koyama, R. Isago, and K. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 091102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. U. Murade, D. van der Ende, and F. Mugele, Opt. Express 20, 18180 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

K. Masuda, R. Nakamoto, N. Watarai, R. Koda, Y. Taguchi, T. Kozuka, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kakimoto, S. Enosawa, and T. Chiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 07HF11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Koyama, R. Isago, and K. Nakamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 07HE26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Koyama, R. Isago, and K. Nakamura, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 2720 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

2008

2006

F. Krogmann, W. Mönch, and H. Zappe, J. Opt. A 8, S330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, Nature 442, 551 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Ren and S. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2000

B. Berge and J. Peseux, Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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C. B. Gorman, H. A. Biebuyck, and G. M. Whitesides, Langmuir 11, 2242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1982

B. Chu and E. Apfel, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 72, 1673 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A. K.

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, Nature 442, 551 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Apfel, E.

B. Chu and E. Apfel, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 72, 1673 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, C. B.

Beaurepaire, E.

Beebe, D. J.

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, Nature 442, 551 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berge, B.

B. Berge and J. Peseux, Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Biebuyck, H. A.

C. B. Gorman, H. A. Biebuyck, and G. M. Whitesides, Langmuir 11, 2242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chiba, T.

K. Masuda, R. Nakamoto, N. Watarai, R. Koda, Y. Taguchi, T. Kozuka, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kakimoto, S. Enosawa, and T. Chiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 07HF11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chronis, N.

Chu, B.

B. Chu and E. Apfel, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 72, 1673 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, Nature 442, 551 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Draheim, J.

F. Schneider, J. Draheim, C. Müller, and U. Wallrabe, Sens. Actuators A 154, 316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Schneider, J. Draheim, C. Müller, R. Kamberger, P. Waibel, and U. Wallrabe, Opt. Express 17, 11813 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Enosawa, S.

K. Masuda, R. Nakamoto, N. Watarai, R. Koda, Y. Taguchi, T. Kozuka, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kakimoto, S. Enosawa, and T. Chiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 07HF11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gorman, C. B.

C. B. Gorman, H. A. Biebuyck, and G. M. Whitesides, Langmuir 11, 2242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hendriks, B. H. W.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hirsa, A. H.

C. A. López and A. H. Hirsa, Nat. Photon. 2, 610 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Isago, R.

D. Koyama, R. Isago, and K. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 091102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Koyama, R. Isago, and K. Nakamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 07HE26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Koyama, R. Isago, and K. Nakamura, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 2720 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Koyama, R. Isago, and K. Nakamura, Opt. Express 18, 25158 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, M.

H. Oku and M. Ishikawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 221108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, K. H.

Jiang, H.

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, Nature 442, 551 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kakimoto, T.

K. Masuda, R. Nakamoto, N. Watarai, R. Koda, Y. Taguchi, T. Kozuka, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kakimoto, S. Enosawa, and T. Chiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 07HF11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kamberger, R.

Koda, R.

K. Masuda, R. Nakamoto, N. Watarai, R. Koda, Y. Taguchi, T. Kozuka, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kakimoto, S. Enosawa, and T. Chiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 07HF11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, D.

D. Koyama, R. Isago, and K. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 091102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Koyama, R. Isago, and K. Nakamura, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 2720 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Koyama, R. Isago, and K. Nakamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 07HE26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Koyama, R. Isago, and K. Nakamura, Opt. Express 18, 25158 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kozuka, T.

K. Masuda, R. Nakamoto, N. Watarai, R. Koda, Y. Taguchi, T. Kozuka, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kakimoto, S. Enosawa, and T. Chiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 07HF11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krogmann, F.

F. Krogmann, W. Mönch, and H. Zappe, J. Opt. A 8, S330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuiper, S.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. P.

Liu, G. L.

López, C. A.

C. A. López and A. H. Hirsa, Nat. Photon. 2, 610 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, K.

K. Masuda, R. Nakamoto, N. Watarai, R. Koda, Y. Taguchi, T. Kozuka, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kakimoto, S. Enosawa, and T. Chiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 07HF11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

McLeod, E.

Mermillod-Blondin, A.

Miyamoto, Y.

K. Masuda, R. Nakamoto, N. Watarai, R. Koda, Y. Taguchi, T. Kozuka, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kakimoto, S. Enosawa, and T. Chiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 07HF11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mönch, W.

F. Krogmann, W. Mönch, and H. Zappe, J. Opt. A 8, S330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mugele, F.

Müller, C.

F. Schneider, J. Draheim, C. Müller, and U. Wallrabe, Sens. Actuators A 154, 316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Schneider, J. Draheim, C. Müller, R. Kamberger, P. Waibel, and U. Wallrabe, Opt. Express 17, 11813 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Murade, C. U.

Nakamoto, R.

K. Masuda, R. Nakamoto, N. Watarai, R. Koda, Y. Taguchi, T. Kozuka, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kakimoto, S. Enosawa, and T. Chiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 07HF11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

D. Koyama, R. Isago, and K. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 091102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Koyama, R. Isago, and K. Nakamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 07HE26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Koyama, R. Isago, and K. Nakamura, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 2720 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Koyama, R. Isago, and K. Nakamura, Opt. Express 18, 25158 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oku, H.

H. Oku and M. Ishikawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 221108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, N.

Peseux, J.

B. Berge and J. Peseux, Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

H. Ren and S. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, F.

F. Schneider, J. Draheim, C. Müller, and U. Wallrabe, Sens. Actuators A 154, 316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Schneider, J. Draheim, C. Müller, R. Kamberger, P. Waibel, and U. Wallrabe, Opt. Express 17, 11813 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taguchi, Y.

K. Masuda, R. Nakamoto, N. Watarai, R. Koda, Y. Taguchi, T. Kozuka, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kakimoto, S. Enosawa, and T. Chiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 07HF11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van der Ende, D.

Waibel, P.

Wallrabe, U.

F. Schneider, J. Draheim, C. Müller, R. Kamberger, P. Waibel, and U. Wallrabe, Opt. Express 17, 11813 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Schneider, J. Draheim, C. Müller, and U. Wallrabe, Sens. Actuators A 154, 316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Watarai, N.

K. Masuda, R. Nakamoto, N. Watarai, R. Koda, Y. Taguchi, T. Kozuka, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kakimoto, S. Enosawa, and T. Chiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 07HF11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

C. B. Gorman, H. A. Biebuyck, and G. M. Whitesides, Langmuir 11, 2242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

H. Ren and S. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zappe, H.

F. Krogmann, W. Mönch, and H. Zappe, J. Opt. A 8, S330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Oku and M. Ishikawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 221108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren and S. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Koyama, R. Isago, and K. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 091102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. E

B. Berge and J. Peseux, Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control

D. Koyama, R. Isago, and K. Nakamura, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 2720 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am.

B. Chu and E. Apfel, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 72, 1673 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A

F. Krogmann, W. Mönch, and H. Zappe, J. Opt. A 8, S330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

D. Koyama, R. Isago, and K. Nakamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 07HE26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Masuda, R. Nakamoto, N. Watarai, R. Koda, Y. Taguchi, T. Kozuka, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kakimoto, S. Enosawa, and T. Chiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 07HF11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir

C. B. Gorman, H. A. Biebuyck, and G. M. Whitesides, Langmuir 11, 2242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon.

C. A. López and A. H. Hirsa, Nat. Photon. 2, 610 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, Nature 442, 551 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Sens. Actuators A

F. Schneider, J. Draheim, C. Müller, and U. Wallrabe, Sens. Actuators A 154, 316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Configuration of lens array.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Vibration modes of glass plate at (a) 91 and (b) 183 kHz calculated by FEA.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Surface profiles of silicone gel at (a) 90 and (b) 170 kHz (top: bird’s eye view; bottom: cross-sectional profile of vibrational displacement amplitude of glass plate along line AA when the input voltage was switched on and off).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Average and standard deviation of lens height in lens array at 90 kHz.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Ray-tracing simulation results for lens arrays excited by input voltages of 0, 32, and 62Vpp at 90 kHz. (b) Relationship between input voltage and focal length of lens array.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Images of two objects located at different distances obtained from lens focused at (a) 75, (b) 89, and (c) 102 mm.

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