Abstract

High contrast blue organic light-emitting diodes were fabricated using an inorganic multilayer of NPB (700 Å)/MADN (200 Å)/Alq3 (300 Å)/LiF (10 Å)/Al (70 Å)/ZnSe (300 Å)/Al (1000 Å). The optical and electrical characteristics were measured and compared to conventional organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and OLEDs with polarizers. OLEDs with the metal multilayer cathodes had an improved contrast ratio of 1351 compared to 1041 for OLEDs with polarizers. In addition, the multilayer OLEDs had a low turn-on voltage of 3.5 V due to energy band fitting of ZnSe with Al and the electron transport layer.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

2004

Z. Y. Xie and L. S. Hung, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Feng, R. Khangura, and Z. H. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 497 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Wong, M. K. Fung, X. Jiang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, Thin Solid Films 446, 143 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. Aziz, Y. F. Liew, H. M. Grandin, and Z. D. Popovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

N. Krasnov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

L. S. Hung and J. Madathil, Adv. Mater. 13, 1787 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

1997

C. Wu, J. C. Sturm, and A. Khan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aziz, H.

H. Aziz, Y. F. Liew, H. M. Grandin, and Z. D. Popovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Aziz, Z. D. Popovic, N. X. Hu, A. M. Hor, and G. Xu, Science 283, 1900 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bastiaansen, C. W. M.

V. Vaenkatesan, R. T. Wegh, J. P. Teunissen, J. Lub, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Broer, D. J.

V. Vaenkatesan, R. T. Wegh, J. P. Teunissen, J. Lub, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

Y. Cao, I. D. Parker, G. Yu, C. Zhang, and A. J. Heeger, Nature 397, 414 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X. D.

X. D. Feng, R. Khangura, and Z. H. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 497 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fukutani, H.

Fung, M. K.

F. L. Wong, M. K. Fung, X. Jiang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, Thin Solid Films 446, 143 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grandin, H. M.

H. Aziz, Y. F. Liew, H. M. Grandin, and Z. D. Popovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

Y. Cao, I. D. Parker, G. Yu, C. Zhang, and A. J. Heeger, Nature 397, 414 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hor, A. M.

H. Aziz, Z. D. Popovic, N. X. Hu, A. M. Hor, and G. Xu, Science 283, 1900 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hu, N. X.

H. Aziz, Z. D. Popovic, N. X. Hu, A. M. Hor, and G. Xu, Science 283, 1900 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hung, L. S.

Z. Y. Xie and L. S. Hung, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Hung and J. Madathil, Adv. Mater. 13, 1787 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

F. L. Wong, M. K. Fung, X. Jiang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, Thin Solid Films 446, 143 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khan, A.

C. Wu, J. C. Sturm, and A. Khan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Khangura, R.

X. D. Feng, R. Khangura, and Z. H. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 497 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. K.

Kim, S. H.

Kim, Y. G.

Ko, J.-H.

Krasnov, N.

N. Krasnov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C.-C.

Kwon, J. H.

Lee, C. S.

F. L. Wong, M. K. Fung, X. Jiang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, Thin Solid Films 446, 143 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. T.

F. L. Wong, M. K. Fung, X. Jiang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, Thin Solid Films 446, 143 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liew, Y. F.

H. Aziz, Y. F. Liew, H. M. Grandin, and Z. D. Popovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z. H.

X. D. Feng, R. Khangura, and Z. H. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 497 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lub, J.

V. Vaenkatesan, R. T. Wegh, J. P. Teunissen, J. Lub, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Madathil, J.

L. S. Hung and J. Madathil, Adv. Mater. 13, 1787 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, G.

Park, J. H.

Park, J.-H.

Parker, I. D.

Y. Cao, I. D. Parker, G. Yu, C. Zhang, and A. J. Heeger, Nature 397, 414 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, D.

Popovic, Z. D.

H. Aziz, Y. F. Liew, H. M. Grandin, and Z. D. Popovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Aziz, Z. D. Popovic, N. X. Hu, A. M. Hor, and G. Xu, Science 283, 1900 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Py, C.

Shin, J. K.

Soh, H. S.

Sturm, J. C.

C. Wu, J. C. Sturm, and A. Khan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Teunissen, J. P.

V. Vaenkatesan, R. T. Wegh, J. P. Teunissen, J. Lub, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vaenkatesan, V.

V. Vaenkatesan, R. T. Wegh, J. P. Teunissen, J. Lub, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wegh, R. T.

V. Vaenkatesan, R. T. Wegh, J. P. Teunissen, J. Lub, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wong, F. L.

F. L. Wong, M. K. Fung, X. Jiang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, Thin Solid Films 446, 143 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, J. C. Sturm, and A. Khan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Xie and L. S. Hung, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G.

H. Aziz, Z. D. Popovic, N. X. Hu, A. M. Hor, and G. Xu, Science 283, 1900 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yi, J. H.

Yu, G.

Y. Cao, I. D. Parker, G. Yu, C. Zhang, and A. J. Heeger, Nature 397, 414 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.-Y.

Zhang, C.

Y. Cao, I. D. Parker, G. Yu, C. Zhang, and A. J. Heeger, Nature 397, 414 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

V. Vaenkatesan, R. T. Wegh, J. P. Teunissen, J. Lub, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

L. S. Hung and J. Madathil, Adv. Mater. 13, 1787 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Aziz, Y. F. Liew, H. M. Grandin, and Z. D. Popovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Xie and L. S. Hung, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Feng, R. Khangura, and Z. H. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 497 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Krasnov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, J. C. Sturm, and A. Khan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Korea

Nature

Y. Cao, I. D. Parker, G. Yu, C. Zhang, and A. J. Heeger, Nature 397, 414 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

H. Aziz, Z. D. Popovic, N. X. Hu, A. M. Hor, and G. Xu, Science 283, 1900 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

F. L. Wong, M. K. Fung, X. Jiang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, Thin Solid Films 446, 143 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

OLED devices with (a) inorganic metal multilayer, (b) polarizer attached, (c) conventional metal layer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Reflectance of blue OLED devices of A, B, C, and D.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Luminance-voltage curve and current density-voltage curve (inner) of blue OLEDs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Energy diagrams of device A and device B using inorganic metal multi layers.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Power efficiencies and luminous efficiencies (inner) of blue OLEDs at various current densities.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Device Structure of Blue OLEDs

Tables Icon

Table 2. Optical Characteristics of Blue OLEDs

Equations (1)

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Contrast ratio=Luminescenceon+Reflected ambient lightLuminescenceoff+Reflected ambient light.

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