Abstract

We report on an optical noncontact method for the detection of soft-tissue tumors based on the measurement of their elasticity. A focused air-puff system is used to excite surface waves (SWs) on soft tissues with transient static pressure. A high-speed phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography system is used to measure the SWs as they propagate from the point of excitation. To evaluate the stiffness of soft tissues, the Young’s modulus is quantified based on the group velocity of SWs. Pilot experiments were performed on ex vivo human myxoma and normal fat. Results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method to measure elasticity and differentiate soft-tissue tumors from normal tissues.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2012

R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, F. M. Menodiado, M. Mashiatulla, S. Wang, S. A. Baranov, J. Li, S. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, Laser Phys. 22, 1439 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, G. Guan, X. Cheng, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, Opt. Lett. 37, 722 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, G. Guan, Z. Huang, M. Johnstone, and R. K. Wang, Opt. Lett. 37, 1625 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2009

D. T. Butcher, T. Alliston, and V. M. Weaver, Nat. Rev. Cancer 9, 108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Liang, M. Orescanin, K. Toohey, M. Insana, and S. Boppart, Opt. Lett. 34, 2894 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

A. Samani, J. Zubovits, and D. Plewes, Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

C. Pellot-Barakat, M. Sridhar, K. K. Lindfors, and M. F. Insala, Curr. Med. Imag. Rev. 2, 157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. J. Paszek, N. Zahir, K. R. Johnson, J. N. Lakins, G. I. Rozenberg, A. Gefen, C. A. Reinhart-King, S. S. Margulies, M. Dembo, D. Boettiger, D. A. Hammer, and V. M. Weaver, Cancer Cell 8, 241 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 84, 85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. Singer, C. R. Antonescu, E. Riedel, and M. F. Brennan, Ann. Surg. 238, 358 (2003).

A. Samani, J. Bishop, C. Luginbuhl, and D. B. Plewes, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2183 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Nightingale, S. McAleavey, and G. Trahey, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29, 1715 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. Sinkus, J. Lorenzen, D. Schrader, M. Lorenzen, M. Dargatz, and D. Holz, Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 1649 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

E. J. Chen, J. Novakofski, W. K. Jenkins, and J. W. D. O’Brien, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control. 43, 191 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aglyamov, S.

R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, F. M. Menodiado, M. Mashiatulla, S. Wang, S. A. Baranov, J. Li, S. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, Laser Phys. 22, 1439 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alliston, T.

D. T. Butcher, T. Alliston, and V. M. Weaver, Nat. Rev. Cancer 9, 108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Antonescu, C. R.

S. Singer, C. R. Antonescu, E. Riedel, and M. F. Brennan, Ann. Surg. 238, 358 (2003).

Baranov, S. A.

R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, F. M. Menodiado, M. Mashiatulla, S. Wang, S. A. Baranov, J. Li, S. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, Laser Phys. 22, 1439 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, J.

A. Samani, J. Bishop, C. Luginbuhl, and D. B. Plewes, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2183 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boettiger, D.

M. J. Paszek, N. Zahir, K. R. Johnson, J. N. Lakins, G. I. Rozenberg, A. Gefen, C. A. Reinhart-King, S. S. Margulies, M. Dembo, D. Boettiger, D. A. Hammer, and V. M. Weaver, Cancer Cell 8, 241 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S.

Boppart, S. A.

X. Liang, A. L. Oldenburg, V. Crecea, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, Opt. Express 16, 11052 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 84, 85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brennan, M. F.

S. Singer, C. R. Antonescu, E. Riedel, and M. F. Brennan, Ann. Surg. 238, 358 (2003).

Butcher, D. T.

D. T. Butcher, T. Alliston, and V. M. Weaver, Nat. Rev. Cancer 9, 108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chaney, E. J.

Chen, E. J.

E. J. Chen, J. Novakofski, W. K. Jenkins, and J. W. D. O’Brien, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control. 43, 191 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, X.

Crecea, V.

Dargatz, M.

R. Sinkus, J. Lorenzen, D. Schrader, M. Lorenzen, M. Dargatz, and D. Holz, Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 1649 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dembo, M.

M. J. Paszek, N. Zahir, K. R. Johnson, J. N. Lakins, G. I. Rozenberg, A. Gefen, C. A. Reinhart-King, S. S. Margulies, M. Dembo, D. Boettiger, D. A. Hammer, and V. M. Weaver, Cancer Cell 8, 241 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Emelianov, S.

R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, F. M. Menodiado, M. Mashiatulla, S. Wang, S. A. Baranov, J. Li, S. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, Laser Phys. 22, 1439 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gefen, A.

M. J. Paszek, N. Zahir, K. R. Johnson, J. N. Lakins, G. I. Rozenberg, A. Gefen, C. A. Reinhart-King, S. S. Margulies, M. Dembo, D. Boettiger, D. A. Hammer, and V. M. Weaver, Cancer Cell 8, 241 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guan, G.

Hammer, D. A.

M. J. Paszek, N. Zahir, K. R. Johnson, J. N. Lakins, G. I. Rozenberg, A. Gefen, C. A. Reinhart-King, S. S. Margulies, M. Dembo, D. Boettiger, D. A. Hammer, and V. M. Weaver, Cancer Cell 8, 241 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Holz, D.

R. Sinkus, J. Lorenzen, D. Schrader, M. Lorenzen, M. Dargatz, and D. Holz, Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 1649 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

Hubbell, J. H.

J. H. Hubbell and S. M. Seltzer, “Tables of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients and mass energy-absorption coefficients from 1 keV to 20 MeV for elements Z=1 to 92 and 48 additional substances of dosimetric interest,” NIST report NISTIR 5632 (Radiation and Biomolecular Physics Division, Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1989).

Insala, M. F.

C. Pellot-Barakat, M. Sridhar, K. K. Lindfors, and M. F. Insala, Curr. Med. Imag. Rev. 2, 157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Insana, M.

Jenkins, W. K.

E. J. Chen, J. Novakofski, W. K. Jenkins, and J. W. D. O’Brien, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control. 43, 191 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K. R.

M. J. Paszek, N. Zahir, K. R. Johnson, J. N. Lakins, G. I. Rozenberg, A. Gefen, C. A. Reinhart-King, S. S. Margulies, M. Dembo, D. Boettiger, D. A. Hammer, and V. M. Weaver, Cancer Cell 8, 241 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Johnstone, M.

Lakins, J. N.

M. J. Paszek, N. Zahir, K. R. Johnson, J. N. Lakins, G. I. Rozenberg, A. Gefen, C. A. Reinhart-King, S. S. Margulies, M. Dembo, D. Boettiger, D. A. Hammer, and V. M. Weaver, Cancer Cell 8, 241 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Larin, K. V.

R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, F. M. Menodiado, M. Mashiatulla, S. Wang, S. A. Baranov, J. Li, S. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, Laser Phys. 22, 1439 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

Li, J.

R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, F. M. Menodiado, M. Mashiatulla, S. Wang, S. A. Baranov, J. Li, S. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, Laser Phys. 22, 1439 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X.

Lindfors, K. K.

C. Pellot-Barakat, M. Sridhar, K. K. Lindfors, and M. F. Insala, Curr. Med. Imag. Rev. 2, 157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lorenzen, J.

R. Sinkus, J. Lorenzen, D. Schrader, M. Lorenzen, M. Dargatz, and D. Holz, Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 1649 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lorenzen, M.

R. Sinkus, J. Lorenzen, D. Schrader, M. Lorenzen, M. Dargatz, and D. Holz, Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 1649 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luginbuhl, C.

A. Samani, J. Bishop, C. Luginbuhl, and D. B. Plewes, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2183 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luo, W.

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 84, 85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Manapuram, R. K.

R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, F. M. Menodiado, M. Mashiatulla, S. Wang, S. A. Baranov, J. Li, S. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, Laser Phys. 22, 1439 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Margulies, S. S.

M. J. Paszek, N. Zahir, K. R. Johnson, J. N. Lakins, G. I. Rozenberg, A. Gefen, C. A. Reinhart-King, S. S. Margulies, M. Dembo, D. Boettiger, D. A. Hammer, and V. M. Weaver, Cancer Cell 8, 241 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marks, D. L.

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 84, 85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mashiatulla, M.

R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, F. M. Menodiado, M. Mashiatulla, S. Wang, S. A. Baranov, J. Li, S. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, Laser Phys. 22, 1439 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McAleavey, S.

K. Nightingale, S. McAleavey, and G. Trahey, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29, 1715 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Menodiado, F. M.

R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, F. M. Menodiado, M. Mashiatulla, S. Wang, S. A. Baranov, J. Li, S. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, Laser Phys. 22, 1439 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nightingale, K.

K. Nightingale, S. McAleavey, and G. Trahey, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29, 1715 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Novakofski, J.

E. J. Chen, J. Novakofski, W. K. Jenkins, and J. W. D. O’Brien, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control. 43, 191 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, J. W. D.

E. J. Chen, J. Novakofski, W. K. Jenkins, and J. W. D. O’Brien, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control. 43, 191 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Oldenburg, A. L.

Orescanin, M.

Paszek, M. J.

M. J. Paszek, N. Zahir, K. R. Johnson, J. N. Lakins, G. I. Rozenberg, A. Gefen, C. A. Reinhart-King, S. S. Margulies, M. Dembo, D. Boettiger, D. A. Hammer, and V. M. Weaver, Cancer Cell 8, 241 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pellot-Barakat, C.

C. Pellot-Barakat, M. Sridhar, K. K. Lindfors, and M. F. Insala, Curr. Med. Imag. Rev. 2, 157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Plewes, D.

A. Samani, J. Zubovits, and D. Plewes, Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Plewes, D. B.

A. Samani, J. Bishop, C. Luginbuhl, and D. B. Plewes, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2183 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reinhart-King, C. A.

M. J. Paszek, N. Zahir, K. R. Johnson, J. N. Lakins, G. I. Rozenberg, A. Gefen, C. A. Reinhart-King, S. S. Margulies, M. Dembo, D. Boettiger, D. A. Hammer, and V. M. Weaver, Cancer Cell 8, 241 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riedel, E.

S. Singer, C. R. Antonescu, E. Riedel, and M. F. Brennan, Ann. Surg. 238, 358 (2003).

Rozenberg, G. I.

M. J. Paszek, N. Zahir, K. R. Johnson, J. N. Lakins, G. I. Rozenberg, A. Gefen, C. A. Reinhart-King, S. S. Margulies, M. Dembo, D. Boettiger, D. A. Hammer, and V. M. Weaver, Cancer Cell 8, 241 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Samani, A.

A. Samani, J. Zubovits, and D. Plewes, Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Samani, J. Bishop, C. Luginbuhl, and D. B. Plewes, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2183 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schrader, D.

R. Sinkus, J. Lorenzen, D. Schrader, M. Lorenzen, M. Dargatz, and D. Holz, Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 1649 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seltzer, S. M.

J. H. Hubbell and S. M. Seltzer, “Tables of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients and mass energy-absorption coefficients from 1 keV to 20 MeV for elements Z=1 to 92 and 48 additional substances of dosimetric interest,” NIST report NISTIR 5632 (Radiation and Biomolecular Physics Division, Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1989).

Singer, S.

S. Singer, C. R. Antonescu, E. Riedel, and M. F. Brennan, Ann. Surg. 238, 358 (2003).

Singletary, K. W.

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 84, 85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sinkus, R.

R. Sinkus, J. Lorenzen, D. Schrader, M. Lorenzen, M. Dargatz, and D. Holz, Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 1649 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sridhar, M.

C. Pellot-Barakat, M. Sridhar, K. K. Lindfors, and M. F. Insala, Curr. Med. Imag. Rev. 2, 157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toohey, K.

Trahey, G.

K. Nightingale, S. McAleavey, and G. Trahey, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29, 1715 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. K.

Wang, S.

R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, F. M. Menodiado, M. Mashiatulla, S. Wang, S. A. Baranov, J. Li, S. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, Laser Phys. 22, 1439 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, V. M.

D. T. Butcher, T. Alliston, and V. M. Weaver, Nat. Rev. Cancer 9, 108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Paszek, N. Zahir, K. R. Johnson, J. N. Lakins, G. I. Rozenberg, A. Gefen, C. A. Reinhart-King, S. S. Margulies, M. Dembo, D. Boettiger, D. A. Hammer, and V. M. Weaver, Cancer Cell 8, 241 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zahir, N.

M. J. Paszek, N. Zahir, K. R. Johnson, J. N. Lakins, G. I. Rozenberg, A. Gefen, C. A. Reinhart-King, S. S. Margulies, M. Dembo, D. Boettiger, D. A. Hammer, and V. M. Weaver, Cancer Cell 8, 241 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zubovits, J.

A. Samani, J. Zubovits, and D. Plewes, Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Surg.

S. Singer, C. R. Antonescu, E. Riedel, and M. F. Brennan, Ann. Surg. 238, 358 (2003).

Breast Cancer Res. Treat.

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 84, 85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cancer Cell

M. J. Paszek, N. Zahir, K. R. Johnson, J. N. Lakins, G. I. Rozenberg, A. Gefen, C. A. Reinhart-King, S. S. Margulies, M. Dembo, D. Boettiger, D. A. Hammer, and V. M. Weaver, Cancer Cell 8, 241 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Med. Imag. Rev.

C. Pellot-Barakat, M. Sridhar, K. K. Lindfors, and M. F. Insala, Curr. Med. Imag. Rev. 2, 157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control.

E. J. Chen, J. Novakofski, W. K. Jenkins, and J. W. D. O’Brien, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control. 43, 191 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys.

R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, F. M. Menodiado, M. Mashiatulla, S. Wang, S. A. Baranov, J. Li, S. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, Laser Phys. 22, 1439 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Rev. Cancer

D. T. Butcher, T. Alliston, and V. M. Weaver, Nat. Rev. Cancer 9, 108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

R. Sinkus, J. Lorenzen, D. Schrader, M. Lorenzen, M. Dargatz, and D. Holz, Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 1649 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Samani, J. Zubovits, and D. Plewes, Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Samani, J. Bishop, C. Luginbuhl, and D. B. Plewes, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2183 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ultrasound Med. Biol.

K. Nightingale, S. McAleavey, and G. Trahey, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29, 1715 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. H. Hubbell and S. M. Seltzer, “Tables of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients and mass energy-absorption coefficients from 1 keV to 20 MeV for elements Z=1 to 92 and 48 additional substances of dosimetric interest,” NIST report NISTIR 5632 (Radiation and Biomolecular Physics Division, Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1989).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the system setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) 3D OCT image of the tissue illustrating the locations of excitation and SWs measurement. (b) Side view of (a) showing excitation angle and distance between the air-puff port and tissue surface.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Typical SWs recorded on (a) myxoma and (b) normal fat; SWs recorded at different spatial locations showing time delays detected on (c) myxoma and (d) normal fat.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Box plots of (a) the calculated group velocity of SWs and (b) the quantified Young’s modulus for myxoma and normal fat; N = 13 and N = 12 for the measurements performed on myxoma and normal fat, respectively. The solid dots and whiskers represent the mean values and standard deviations of data, respectively.

Equations (1)

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E = 2 v g 2 ρ ( 1 + ν ) 3 / ( 0.87 + 1.12 ν ) 2 ,

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