Abstract

We propose and demonstrate broadband focusing grating couplers for suspended-membrane waveguides on silicon-on-insulator both in near-infrared (near-IR) and in mid-IR wavelength range. Finite-difference time-domain simulation predicts 100nm 3 dB bandwidth with 1.7dB coupling efficiency for an apodized grating in near-IR. 3.5dB maximum coupling efficiency and 90nm 3 dB bandwidth are realized experimentally. In mid-IR, 5.5dB maximum coupling efficiency from a uniform focusing grating is measured at 2.75 μm, and 500nm 3 dB bandwidth is predicted theoretically.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Hu and D. Dai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 842 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. V. Thourhout and J. Roels, Nat. Photonics 4, 211 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Z. Xiao, F. Luan, T.-Y. Liow, J. Zhang, and P. Shum, Opt. Lett. 37, 530 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Tang, Z. Wang, L. Wosinski, U. Westergren, and S. He, Opt. Lett. 35, 1290 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Hattasan, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, E. M. P. Ryckeboer, D. Vermeulen, and G. Roelkens, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1536 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Roelkensm, D. Vermeulen, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Halir, P. Chenben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, Í Molina-Fernánde, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Opt. Lett. 34, 1408 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernandez, Opt. Lett. 35, 3243 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 1, 184 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051126 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. X. Chen, K. Xu, Z. Cheng, C. K. Y. Fung, and H. K. Tsang, Opt. Lett. 37, 3483 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xiao, F. Luan, T.-Y. Liow, J. Zhang, and P. Shum, Opt. Lett. 37, 530 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Hattasan, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, E. M. P. Ryckeboer, D. Vermeulen, and G. Roelkens, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1536 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, K. Xu, Z. Cheng, C. K. Y. Fung, and H. K. Tsang, Opt. Lett. 37, 3483 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

J. Hu and D. Dai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 842 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

D. V. Thourhout and J. Roels, Nat. Photonics 4, 211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tang, Z. Wang, L. Wosinski, U. Westergren, and S. He, Opt. Lett. 35, 1290 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernandez, Opt. Lett. 35, 3243 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkensm, D. Vermeulen, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkensm, D. Vermeulen, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bedard, D.

Bogaerts, W.

F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brision, S.

G. Roelkensm, D. Vermeulen, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L. L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

Chen, L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, K. Xu, Z. Cheng, C. K. Y. Fung, and H. K. Tsang, Opt. Lett. 37, 3483 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 1, 184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-K.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chenben, P.

Cheng, Z.

X. Chen, K. Xu, Z. Cheng, C. K. Y. Fung, and H. K. Tsang, Opt. Lett. 37, 3483 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Claes, T.

F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

J. Hu and D. Dai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 842 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Densmore, A.

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fédéli, J.-M.

G. Roelkensm, D. Vermeulen, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fung, C. K. Y.

Gautier, P.

G. Roelkensm, D. Vermeulen, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Halir, R.

Hattasan, N.

N. Hattasan, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, E. M. P. Ryckeboer, D. Vermeulen, and G. Roelkens, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1536 (2012).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

Hu, J.

J. Hu and D. Dai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 842 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hvam, J. M.

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

Kuyken, B.

N. Hattasan, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, E. M. P. Ryckeboer, D. Vermeulen, and G. Roelkens, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1536 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Laere, F. V.

F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lapointe, J.

Leo, F.

N. Hattasan, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, E. M. P. Ryckeboer, D. Vermeulen, and G. Roelkens, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1536 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liow, T.-Y.

Liu, L.

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luan, F.

Lyan, P.

G. Roelkensm, D. Vermeulen, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R.

Molina-Fernánde, Í

Molina-Fernandez, I.

O’Faolain, L.

F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pu, M.

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

N. Hattasan, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, E. M. P. Ryckeboer, D. Vermeulen, and G. Roelkens, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1536 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roelkensm, G.

G. Roelkensm, D. Vermeulen, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roels, J.

D. V. Thourhout and J. Roels, Nat. Photonics 4, 211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ryckeboer, E. M. P.

N. Hattasan, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, E. M. P. Ryckeboer, D. Vermeulen, and G. Roelkens, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1536 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Scheerlinck, S.

S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, J. H.

Schrauwen, J.

F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

Taillaert, D.

S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y.

Thourhout, D. V.

D. V. Thourhout and J. Roels, Nat. Photonics 4, 211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkensm, D. Vermeulen, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, K. Xu, Z. Cheng, C. K. Y. Fung, and H. K. Tsang, Opt. Lett. 37, 3483 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 1, 184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vermeulen, D.

N. Hattasan, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, E. M. P. Ryckeboer, D. Vermeulen, and G. Roelkens, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1536 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkensm, D. Vermeulen, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

Westergren, U.

Wong, C. Y.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wosinski, L.

Xiao, Z.

Xu, D.-X.

Xu, K.

X. Chen, K. Xu, Z. Cheng, C. K. Y. Fung, and H. K. Tsang, Opt. Lett. 37, 3483 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yvind, K.

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkensm, D. Vermeulen, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J.

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 1, 184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Hu and D. Dai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 842 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Hattasan, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, E. M. P. Ryckeboer, D. Vermeulen, and G. Roelkens, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1536 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

D. V. Thourhout and J. Roels, Nat. Photonics 4, 211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Nanohole SWG. (b) Broadband “fishbonelike” grating. (c) Broadband focusing “fishbonelike” grating.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Simulated directionality and coupling strength of broadband grating in near-IR. (b) Simulated directionality and coupling strength of broadband grating in mid-IR. (c) Simulated performances of near-IR gratings. (d) Simulated performances of mid-IR gratings. (e) Calculation to achieve Gaussian-shape mode profile with engineering the α(y).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Scanning-electron microscope (SEM) image of SMWs and gratings. (b) SEM image of near-IR broadband apodized focusing grating. (c) SEM image of mid-IR broadband uniform focusing grating. (d) SEM image of SMW cross section.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Measurements of TM-mode broadband apodized focusing grating in near-IR. (b) Mid-IR focusing broadband grating measurements under different θ. (c) Mid-IR focusing broadband grating measurements under different ΛY.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δλbw=ηbw|ncladding(air)cosθneff(λ0)ncladding(air)sinθλ0dneff(λ)dλ|,
mλ=neffx2+y2ynairsinθ,
m=Lfi(neffnairsinθ)λ,

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