Abstract

In this work, an organic composite polymer random laser (RL) operating underwater has been studied. The RL structure used in the test is a rod-shaped composite, formed by a mixture of an organic green light-emitting polymer and a UV transparent polymer matrix. RL action was sustained by both the multiple scattering and whispering-gallery-mode effect. The demonstration of RL action and the test of its operation lifetime in such an organic composite RL operating in water suggest the feasibility of its promising future applications in areas of underwater optical communications and/or remote optical sensing.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011

H. Noh, J.-K. Yang, S. F. Liew, M. J. Rooks, G. S. Solomon, and H. Cao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 183901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. Kanibolotsky, A. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, Org. Electron. 12, 62 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, Y. Zhang, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, Opt. Express 19, 2996 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

I. D. W. Samuel, E. B. Namdas, and G. A. Turnbull, Nat. Photonics 3, 546 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

D. S. Wiersma, Nat. Phys. 4, 359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. García, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. López, Nat. Photonics 2, 429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Hanson and S. Radic, Appl. Opt. 47, 277 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, Chem. Rev. 107, 1272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, Nature 434, 876 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blanco, A.

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. García, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. López, Nat. Photonics 2, 429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, Nature 434, 876 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

H. Noh, J.-K. Yang, S. F. Liew, M. J. Rooks, G. S. Solomon, and H. Cao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 183901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Dawson, M. D.

García, P. D.

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. García, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. López, Nat. Photonics 2, 429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gottardo, S.

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. García, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. López, Nat. Photonics 2, 429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gu, E.

Guilhabert, B.

Hanson, F.

Herrnsdorf, J.

Kanibolotsky, A.

Y. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. Kanibolotsky, A. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, Org. Electron. 12, 62 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, Y. Chen, A. Kanibolotsky, A. Mackintosh, R. Pethrick, P. J. Skabara, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, Opt. Express 18, 25535 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laurand, N.

Liew, S. F.

H. Noh, J.-K. Yang, S. F. Liew, M. J. Rooks, G. S. Solomon, and H. Cao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 183901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

López, C.

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. García, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. López, Nat. Photonics 2, 429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mackintosh, A.

Y. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. Kanibolotsky, A. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, Org. Electron. 12, 62 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, Y. Chen, A. Kanibolotsky, A. Mackintosh, R. Pethrick, P. J. Skabara, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, Opt. Express 18, 25535 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Madigan, C. F.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, Nature 434, 876 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Namdas, E. B.

I. D. W. Samuel, E. B. Namdas, and G. A. Turnbull, Nat. Photonics 3, 546 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Noh, H.

H. Noh, J.-K. Yang, S. F. Liew, M. J. Rooks, G. S. Solomon, and H. Cao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 183901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pethrick, R.

Y. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. Kanibolotsky, A. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, Org. Electron. 12, 62 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, Y. Chen, A. Kanibolotsky, A. Mackintosh, R. Pethrick, P. J. Skabara, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, Opt. Express 18, 25535 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Polson, R.

A. Tulek, R. Polson, and Z. Vardeny, Nat. Phys. 6, 303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Radic, S.

Rooks, M. J.

H. Noh, J.-K. Yang, S. F. Liew, M. J. Rooks, G. S. Solomon, and H. Cao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 183901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rose, A.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, Nature 434, 876 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

Y. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. Kanibolotsky, A. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, Org. Electron. 12, 62 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. D. W. Samuel, E. B. Namdas, and G. A. Turnbull, Nat. Photonics 3, 546 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, Chem. Rev. 107, 1272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sapienza, R.

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. García, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. López, Nat. Photonics 2, 429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Skabara, P. J.

Y. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. Kanibolotsky, A. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, Org. Electron. 12, 62 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, Y. Chen, A. Kanibolotsky, A. Mackintosh, R. Pethrick, P. J. Skabara, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, Opt. Express 18, 25535 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, G. S.

H. Noh, J.-K. Yang, S. F. Liew, M. J. Rooks, G. S. Solomon, and H. Cao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 183901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W.

W. Stewart, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1991), p. 230.

Swager, T. M.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, Nature 434, 876 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tulek, A.

A. Tulek, R. Polson, and Z. Vardeny, Nat. Phys. 6, 303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Turnbull, G. A.

Y. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. Kanibolotsky, A. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, Org. Electron. 12, 62 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. D. W. Samuel, E. B. Namdas, and G. A. Turnbull, Nat. Photonics 3, 546 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, Chem. Rev. 107, 1272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vardeny, Z.

A. Tulek, R. Polson, and Z. Vardeny, Nat. Phys. 6, 303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. Kanibolotsky, A. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, Org. Electron. 12, 62 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Watson, I. M.

Wiersma, D. S.

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. García, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. López, Nat. Photonics 2, 429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, Nat. Phys. 4, 359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.-K.

H. Noh, J.-K. Yang, S. F. Liew, M. J. Rooks, G. S. Solomon, and H. Cao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 183901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Zhu, Z.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, Nature 434, 876 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Chem. Rev.

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, Chem. Rev. 107, 1272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

I. D. W. Samuel, E. B. Namdas, and G. A. Turnbull, Nat. Photonics 3, 546 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. García, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. López, Nat. Photonics 2, 429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

A. Tulek, R. Polson, and Z. Vardeny, Nat. Phys. 6, 303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, Nat. Phys. 4, 359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, Nature 434, 876 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Org. Electron.

Y. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. Kanibolotsky, A. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, Org. Electron. 12, 62 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. Noh, J.-K. Yang, S. F. Liew, M. J. Rooks, G. S. Solomon, and H. Cao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 183901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. Stewart, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1991), p. 230.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Organic composite RL operating in air: (a) mapping of spectral evolution when increasing the pump fluence; (b) threshold curve illustrated by the integrated peak (514–522 nm) intensity as a function of pump fluence; and (c) mapping of 160 single-shot (normalized) lasing spectra. Inset of (a) is the organic composite rod (BBEHP-PPV/CHDV composite cured in an open-end plastic tube). Inset of (b) presents the lasing spectra pumped at around the threshold.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Mapping of spectral evolution for the rod-shaped RL located in a glass vial: (a) before and (b) after pouring DI water into. Inset of (b) is the photograph corresponding to the case of (b).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Lifetime test for the organic composite RL (after submerging in the water for 15 h) operating underwater (under the pump fluence of 4±0.2mJ/cm2): (a) mapping of the spectral evolution when the composite RL being pumped continually underwater and (b) RL gain peak (518 nm) and PL background peak (486 nm) [indicated by lower and upper triangular markers in (a), respectively] versus the number of pump pulses.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Change of (a) RL threshold and (b) PL background peak at 486 nm (under the pump fluence of 9.5±0.5mJ/cm2) against the time that the organic composite RL was submerging into water.

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