Abstract

We present results including measurement and analysis of titanium monoxide. Pulsed, nanosecond Nd:YAG laser radiation is used in a typical laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy arrangement to record the spectra. This scheme provides experiments analogous to pulsed laser deposition tactics and allows for time-resolved spectroscopic analysis. The computed spectra are generated from a new, accurate line-strength file that allows us to accurately predict γ (A3ΦX3Δ) and γ (B3ΠX3Δ) spectral signatures. We infer temperature on the order of 3600±700K and 4200±800K at time delays of 52 and 72 μs, respectively. Current interest in this work includes titania (TiO2) nanoparticle generation for thin film applications.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Linsebigler, G. Lu, and J. T. Yates, Chem. Rev. 95, 735 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. F. Ollis, C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. IIC Chim. 3, 405 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. O’Regan and M. Grätzel, Nature 353, 737 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. D. Grant, A. M. Schwartzberg, G. P. Smestad, J. Kowalik, L. M. Tolbert, and J. Z. Zhang, J. Electroanal. Chem. 522, 40 (2002).
  5. K. C. Namiki, H. Saitoh, and H. Ito, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 226, 87 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Christy, Phys. Rev. 33, 701 (1929).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Kotnik-Karuza and R. Jurdana-Šepić, Astron. Astrophys. 355, 595 (2000).
  8. S. J. Schmidt, G. Wallerstein, V. Woolf, and J. L. Bean, AIP Conf. Proc. 1094, 808 (2009).
  9. J. Hermann, A. Peronne, and C. Dutouquet, J. Phys. B 34, 153 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. E. Cremers and L. J. Radziemski, Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (John Wiley, 2006).
  11. C. Parigger and J. O. Hornkohl, Int. Rev. Atom. Mol. Phys. 1, 25 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. G. Dors, C. Parigger, and J. W. L. Lewis, Opt. Lett. 23, 1778 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. De Giacomo, M. Dell’ Aglio, A. Santagata, and R. Teghil, Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 935 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. G. Parigger and J. O. Hornkohl, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 81, 404 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. G. Parigger, A. C. Woods, A. Keszler, L. Nemes, and J. O. Hornkohl, in High-Power Laser Ablation 2012 (American Institute of Physics, 2012).
  16. R. E. Russo, A. A. Bolshakov, X. Mao, C. P. McKay, D. L. Perry, and O. Sorkhabi, Spectrochim. Acta Part B 66, 99 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Amiot, P. Luc, and R. Vetter, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 214, 196 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Herzberg, Molecular Structure and Molecular Spectra I. Spectra of Diatomic Molecules, 2nd ed. (Van Nostrand, 1950).
  19. C. G. Parigger, A. Woods, and J. O. Hornkohl, Appl. Opt. 51, B1 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN: The Art of Scientific Computing, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University, 2007).

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

C. G. Parigger and J. O. Hornkohl, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 81, 404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Russo, A. A. Bolshakov, X. Mao, C. P. McKay, D. L. Perry, and O. Sorkhabi, Spectrochim. Acta Part B 66, 99 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

C. Parigger and J. O. Hornkohl, Int. Rev. Atom. Mol. Phys. 1, 25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. J. Schmidt, G. Wallerstein, V. Woolf, and J. L. Bean, AIP Conf. Proc. 1094, 808 (2009).

2005 (1)

A. De Giacomo, M. Dell’ Aglio, A. Santagata, and R. Teghil, Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 935 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. C. Namiki, H. Saitoh, and H. Ito, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 226, 87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

C. D. Grant, A. M. Schwartzberg, G. P. Smestad, J. Kowalik, L. M. Tolbert, and J. Z. Zhang, J. Electroanal. Chem. 522, 40 (2002).

C. Amiot, P. Luc, and R. Vetter, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 214, 196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. Hermann, A. Peronne, and C. Dutouquet, J. Phys. B 34, 153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

D. F. Ollis, C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. IIC Chim. 3, 405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Kotnik-Karuza and R. Jurdana-Šepić, Astron. Astrophys. 355, 595 (2000).

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

L. Linsebigler, G. Lu, and J. T. Yates, Chem. Rev. 95, 735 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

B. O’Regan and M. Grätzel, Nature 353, 737 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1929 (1)

A. Christy, Phys. Rev. 33, 701 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Amiot, C.

C. Amiot, P. Luc, and R. Vetter, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 214, 196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bean, J. L.

S. J. Schmidt, G. Wallerstein, V. Woolf, and J. L. Bean, AIP Conf. Proc. 1094, 808 (2009).

Bolshakov, A. A.

R. E. Russo, A. A. Bolshakov, X. Mao, C. P. McKay, D. L. Perry, and O. Sorkhabi, Spectrochim. Acta Part B 66, 99 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Christy, A.

A. Christy, Phys. Rev. 33, 701 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Cremers, D. E.

D. E. Cremers and L. J. Radziemski, Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (John Wiley, 2006).

De Giacomo, A.

A. De Giacomo, M. Dell’ Aglio, A. Santagata, and R. Teghil, Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 935 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dell’ Aglio, M.

A. De Giacomo, M. Dell’ Aglio, A. Santagata, and R. Teghil, Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 935 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dors, I. G.

Dutouquet, C.

J. Hermann, A. Peronne, and C. Dutouquet, J. Phys. B 34, 153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN: The Art of Scientific Computing, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University, 2007).

Grant, C. D.

C. D. Grant, A. M. Schwartzberg, G. P. Smestad, J. Kowalik, L. M. Tolbert, and J. Z. Zhang, J. Electroanal. Chem. 522, 40 (2002).

Grätzel, M.

B. O’Regan and M. Grätzel, Nature 353, 737 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, J.

J. Hermann, A. Peronne, and C. Dutouquet, J. Phys. B 34, 153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, Molecular Structure and Molecular Spectra I. Spectra of Diatomic Molecules, 2nd ed. (Van Nostrand, 1950).

Hornkohl, J. O.

C. G. Parigger, A. Woods, and J. O. Hornkohl, Appl. Opt. 51, B1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parigger and J. O. Hornkohl, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 81, 404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Parigger and J. O. Hornkohl, Int. Rev. Atom. Mol. Phys. 1, 25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parigger, A. C. Woods, A. Keszler, L. Nemes, and J. O. Hornkohl, in High-Power Laser Ablation 2012 (American Institute of Physics, 2012).

Ito, H.

K. C. Namiki, H. Saitoh, and H. Ito, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 226, 87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jurdana-Šepic, R.

D. Kotnik-Karuza and R. Jurdana-Šepić, Astron. Astrophys. 355, 595 (2000).

Keszler, A.

C. G. Parigger, A. C. Woods, A. Keszler, L. Nemes, and J. O. Hornkohl, in High-Power Laser Ablation 2012 (American Institute of Physics, 2012).

Kotnik-Karuza, D.

D. Kotnik-Karuza and R. Jurdana-Šepić, Astron. Astrophys. 355, 595 (2000).

Kowalik, J.

C. D. Grant, A. M. Schwartzberg, G. P. Smestad, J. Kowalik, L. M. Tolbert, and J. Z. Zhang, J. Electroanal. Chem. 522, 40 (2002).

Lewis, J. W. L.

Linsebigler, L.

L. Linsebigler, G. Lu, and J. T. Yates, Chem. Rev. 95, 735 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lu, G.

L. Linsebigler, G. Lu, and J. T. Yates, Chem. Rev. 95, 735 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Luc, P.

C. Amiot, P. Luc, and R. Vetter, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 214, 196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mao, X.

R. E. Russo, A. A. Bolshakov, X. Mao, C. P. McKay, D. L. Perry, and O. Sorkhabi, Spectrochim. Acta Part B 66, 99 (2011).
[CrossRef]

McKay, C. P.

R. E. Russo, A. A. Bolshakov, X. Mao, C. P. McKay, D. L. Perry, and O. Sorkhabi, Spectrochim. Acta Part B 66, 99 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Namiki, K. C.

K. C. Namiki, H. Saitoh, and H. Ito, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 226, 87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nemes, L.

C. G. Parigger, A. C. Woods, A. Keszler, L. Nemes, and J. O. Hornkohl, in High-Power Laser Ablation 2012 (American Institute of Physics, 2012).

O’Regan, B.

B. O’Regan and M. Grätzel, Nature 353, 737 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ollis, D. F.

D. F. Ollis, C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. IIC Chim. 3, 405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Parigger, C.

C. Parigger and J. O. Hornkohl, Int. Rev. Atom. Mol. Phys. 1, 25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. G. Dors, C. Parigger, and J. W. L. Lewis, Opt. Lett. 23, 1778 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Parigger, C. G.

C. G. Parigger, A. Woods, and J. O. Hornkohl, Appl. Opt. 51, B1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parigger and J. O. Hornkohl, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 81, 404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parigger, A. C. Woods, A. Keszler, L. Nemes, and J. O. Hornkohl, in High-Power Laser Ablation 2012 (American Institute of Physics, 2012).

Peronne, A.

J. Hermann, A. Peronne, and C. Dutouquet, J. Phys. B 34, 153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Perry, D. L.

R. E. Russo, A. A. Bolshakov, X. Mao, C. P. McKay, D. L. Perry, and O. Sorkhabi, Spectrochim. Acta Part B 66, 99 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN: The Art of Scientific Computing, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University, 2007).

Radziemski, L. J.

D. E. Cremers and L. J. Radziemski, Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (John Wiley, 2006).

Russo, R. E.

R. E. Russo, A. A. Bolshakov, X. Mao, C. P. McKay, D. L. Perry, and O. Sorkhabi, Spectrochim. Acta Part B 66, 99 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, H.

K. C. Namiki, H. Saitoh, and H. Ito, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 226, 87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Santagata, A.

A. De Giacomo, M. Dell’ Aglio, A. Santagata, and R. Teghil, Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 935 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, S. J.

S. J. Schmidt, G. Wallerstein, V. Woolf, and J. L. Bean, AIP Conf. Proc. 1094, 808 (2009).

Schwartzberg, A. M.

C. D. Grant, A. M. Schwartzberg, G. P. Smestad, J. Kowalik, L. M. Tolbert, and J. Z. Zhang, J. Electroanal. Chem. 522, 40 (2002).

Smestad, G. P.

C. D. Grant, A. M. Schwartzberg, G. P. Smestad, J. Kowalik, L. M. Tolbert, and J. Z. Zhang, J. Electroanal. Chem. 522, 40 (2002).

Sorkhabi, O.

R. E. Russo, A. A. Bolshakov, X. Mao, C. P. McKay, D. L. Perry, and O. Sorkhabi, Spectrochim. Acta Part B 66, 99 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Teghil, R.

A. De Giacomo, M. Dell’ Aglio, A. Santagata, and R. Teghil, Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 935 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN: The Art of Scientific Computing, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University, 2007).

Tolbert, L. M.

C. D. Grant, A. M. Schwartzberg, G. P. Smestad, J. Kowalik, L. M. Tolbert, and J. Z. Zhang, J. Electroanal. Chem. 522, 40 (2002).

Vetter, R.

C. Amiot, P. Luc, and R. Vetter, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 214, 196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN: The Art of Scientific Computing, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University, 2007).

Wallerstein, G.

S. J. Schmidt, G. Wallerstein, V. Woolf, and J. L. Bean, AIP Conf. Proc. 1094, 808 (2009).

Woods, A.

Woods, A. C.

C. G. Parigger, A. C. Woods, A. Keszler, L. Nemes, and J. O. Hornkohl, in High-Power Laser Ablation 2012 (American Institute of Physics, 2012).

Woolf, V.

S. J. Schmidt, G. Wallerstein, V. Woolf, and J. L. Bean, AIP Conf. Proc. 1094, 808 (2009).

Yates, J. T.

L. Linsebigler, G. Lu, and J. T. Yates, Chem. Rev. 95, 735 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. Z.

C. D. Grant, A. M. Schwartzberg, G. P. Smestad, J. Kowalik, L. M. Tolbert, and J. Z. Zhang, J. Electroanal. Chem. 522, 40 (2002).

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

S. J. Schmidt, G. Wallerstein, V. Woolf, and J. L. Bean, AIP Conf. Proc. 1094, 808 (2009).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

D. Kotnik-Karuza and R. Jurdana-Šepić, Astron. Astrophys. 355, 595 (2000).

C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. IIC Chim. (1)

D. F. Ollis, C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. IIC Chim. 3, 405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

L. Linsebigler, G. Lu, and J. T. Yates, Chem. Rev. 95, 735 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Int. Rev. Atom. Mol. Phys. (1)

C. Parigger and J. O. Hornkohl, Int. Rev. Atom. Mol. Phys. 1, 25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Electroanal. Chem. (1)

C. D. Grant, A. M. Schwartzberg, G. P. Smestad, J. Kowalik, L. M. Tolbert, and J. Z. Zhang, J. Electroanal. Chem. 522, 40 (2002).

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (2)

K. C. Namiki, H. Saitoh, and H. Ito, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 226, 87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Amiot, P. Luc, and R. Vetter, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 214, 196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

J. Hermann, A. Peronne, and C. Dutouquet, J. Phys. B 34, 153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

B. O’Regan and M. Grätzel, Nature 353, 737 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. Christy, Phys. Rev. 33, 701 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part A (1)

C. G. Parigger and J. O. Hornkohl, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 81, 404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part B (2)

A. De Giacomo, M. Dell’ Aglio, A. Santagata, and R. Teghil, Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 935 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Russo, A. A. Bolshakov, X. Mao, C. P. McKay, D. L. Perry, and O. Sorkhabi, Spectrochim. Acta Part B 66, 99 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

C. G. Parigger, A. C. Woods, A. Keszler, L. Nemes, and J. O. Hornkohl, in High-Power Laser Ablation 2012 (American Institute of Physics, 2012).

G. Herzberg, Molecular Structure and Molecular Spectra I. Spectra of Diatomic Molecules, 2nd ed. (Van Nostrand, 1950).

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN: The Art of Scientific Computing, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University, 2007).

D. E. Cremers and L. J. Radziemski, Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (John Wiley, 2006).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Computed spectra for the TiO B3ΠX3Δ and A3ΦX3Δ transition bands, corresponding to a temperature of t=4000K and resolution FWHM=0.1nm. The relative intensity of the Δν=0 transitions has been normalized for the two systems.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experiment and fitted theory spectra at tdelay=52.2μs representing the γ system at T=3600±700K at a spectral resolution of 0.4 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experiment and fitted theory spectra at tdelay=72.2μs representing the γ system at T=4200±800K at a spectral resolution of 0.4 nm.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Sul=ul|u|Tκ(q)|l|2.
S(J,J)=δΣΣδss12J+1|aanvJM|aJΩqκ|JΩa|nvJM|2,
S(nv,nv)=κ=qq|nv|T^κ(q)|nv|2,
S(nvJ,nvJ)=S(J,J)S(nv,nv).

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