Abstract

An optofluidic water-jet waveguide on chip for fluorescence analysis is presented. A high-speed water stream produced by means of a microchannel acts at the same time as the solution to analyze and as the collecting optical waveguide. The absence of solid walls and the very optically smooth surface of the liquid stream permits a strong increase of the signal-to-noise ratio. The device layout allows a self-alignment direct coupling of a water-jet waveguide with a multimode optical fiber connected to the detector. The performances of the integrated system are tested on Cy5 water solutions. For a 4.5 mm long water-jet waveguide, the measured limit of detection (LOD) is 2.56 nM and filter-free detection is possible with an LOD of 6.11 nM.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

A. Chen, M. M. Eberle, E. J. Lunt, S. Liu, K. Leake, M. I. Rudenko, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Lab Chip 11, 1502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, M. Jenkins, P. Measor, K. Leake, S. Liu, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

R. Gravina, G. Testa, and R. Bernini, Sensors 9, 10423 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

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[CrossRef]

R. Irawan, C. M. Tay, S. C. Tjin, and C. Y. Fu, Lab Chip 6, 1095 (2006).
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2005 (2)

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

B. Richerzhagen, Solid State Technol. 44, 25 (2001).

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S. Folestad, L. Johnson, B. Josefsson, and B. Galle, Anal. Chem. 54, 925 (1982).
[CrossRef]

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D. Colladon, Compt. Rend. 15, 800 (1842).

Abuknesha, R. A.

Anderson, G. P.

C. R. Taitt, G. P. Anderson, and F. S. Ligler, Biosens. Bioelectron. 20, 2470 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barth, M.

Benson, O.

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R. Gravina, G. Testa, and R. Bernini, Sensors 9, 10423 (2009).
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R. Bernini, N. Cennamo, A. Minardo, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sens. J. 6, 1218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cennamo, N.

R. Bernini, N. Cennamo, A. Minardo, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sens. J. 6, 1218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

A. Chen, M. M. Eberle, E. J. Lunt, S. Liu, K. Leake, M. I. Rudenko, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Lab Chip 11, 1502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Colladon, D.

D. Colladon, Compt. Rend. 15, 800 (1842).

Dakin, J. P.

S. J. Mackenzie, J. Hodgkinson, M. Johnson, and J. P. Dakin, “A falling analyte stream configuration for spectroscopic analysis of aqueous solutions,” presented at Europto EnviroSense, Munich, Germany (16–20 June 1997).

Eberle, M. M.

A. Chen, M. M. Eberle, E. J. Lunt, S. Liu, K. Leake, M. I. Rudenko, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Lab Chip 11, 1502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

X. Fan and I. M. White, Nat. Photonics 5, 591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Folestad, S.

S. Folestad, L. Johnson, B. Josefsson, and B. Galle, Anal. Chem. 54, 925 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fu, C. Y.

R. Irawan, C. M. Tay, S. C. Tjin, and C. Y. Fu, Lab Chip 6, 1095 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galle, B.

S. Folestad, L. Johnson, B. Josefsson, and B. Galle, Anal. Chem. 54, 925 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gangopadhyay, S.

Gauglitz, G.

Gravina, R.

R. Gravina, G. Testa, and R. Bernini, Sensors 9, 10423 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Griffith, H. M. T.

Hawkins, A. R.

A. Chen, M. M. Eberle, E. J. Lunt, S. Liu, K. Leake, M. I. Rudenko, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Lab Chip 11, 1502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, M. Jenkins, P. Measor, K. Leake, S. Liu, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hodgkinson, J.

S. J. Mackenzie, J. Hodgkinson, M. Johnson, and J. P. Dakin, “A falling analyte stream configuration for spectroscopic analysis of aqueous solutions,” presented at Europto EnviroSense, Munich, Germany (16–20 June 1997).

Hole, J. P.

Hua, P.

Inczedy, J.

J. Inczedy, T. Lengyel, and A. M. Ure, Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature. The Orange Book, 3rd ed. (Blackwell, 1998).

Irawan, R.

R. Irawan, C. M. Tay, S. C. Tjin, and C. Y. Fu, Lab Chip 6, 1095 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, M. A.

Jenkins, M.

Y. Zhao, M. Jenkins, P. Measor, K. Leake, S. Liu, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L.

S. Folestad, L. Johnson, B. Josefsson, and B. Galle, Anal. Chem. 54, 925 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, M.

S. J. Mackenzie, J. Hodgkinson, M. Johnson, and J. P. Dakin, “A falling analyte stream configuration for spectroscopic analysis of aqueous solutions,” presented at Europto EnviroSense, Munich, Germany (16–20 June 1997).

Josefsson, B.

S. Folestad, L. Johnson, B. Josefsson, and B. Galle, Anal. Chem. 54, 925 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kasier, J.

Kim, H.-C.

Kraemmer, P.

Leake, K.

Y. Zhao, M. Jenkins, P. Measor, K. Leake, S. Liu, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Chen, M. M. Eberle, E. J. Lunt, S. Liu, K. Leake, M. I. Rudenko, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Lab Chip 11, 1502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lengyel, T.

J. Inczedy, T. Lengyel, and A. M. Ure, Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature. The Orange Book, 3rd ed. (Blackwell, 1998).

Ligler, F. S.

C. R. Taitt, G. P. Anderson, and F. S. Ligler, Biosens. Bioelectron. 20, 2470 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

A. Chen, M. M. Eberle, E. J. Lunt, S. Liu, K. Leake, M. I. Rudenko, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Lab Chip 11, 1502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, M. Jenkins, P. Measor, K. Leake, S. Liu, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lunt, E. J.

A. Chen, M. M. Eberle, E. J. Lunt, S. Liu, K. Leake, M. I. Rudenko, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Lab Chip 11, 1502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mackenzie, S. J.

S. J. Mackenzie, J. Hodgkinson, M. Johnson, and J. P. Dakin, “A falling analyte stream configuration for spectroscopic analysis of aqueous solutions,” presented at Europto EnviroSense, Munich, Germany (16–20 June 1997).

Measor, P.

Y. Zhao, M. Jenkins, P. Measor, K. Leake, S. Liu, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. D.

Minardo, A.

R. Bernini, N. Cennamo, A. Minardo, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sens. J. 6, 1218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nudd, R.

Proll, G.

Richerzhagen, B.

B. Richerzhagen, Solid State Technol. 44, 25 (2001).

Risk, W. P.

Rudenko, M. I.

A. Chen, M. M. Eberle, E. J. Lunt, S. Liu, K. Leake, M. I. Rudenko, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Lab Chip 11, 1502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

A. Chen, M. M. Eberle, E. J. Lunt, S. Liu, K. Leake, M. I. Rudenko, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Lab Chip 11, 1502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, M. Jenkins, P. Measor, K. Leake, S. Liu, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Smolka, S.

Taitt, C. R.

C. R. Taitt, G. P. Anderson, and F. S. Ligler, Biosens. Bioelectron. 20, 2470 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tay, C. M.

R. Irawan, C. M. Tay, S. C. Tjin, and C. Y. Fu, Lab Chip 6, 1095 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Temkin, H.

Testa, G.

R. Gravina, G. Testa, and R. Bernini, Sensors 9, 10423 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tjin, S. C.

R. Irawan, C. M. Tay, S. C. Tjin, and C. Y. Fu, Lab Chip 6, 1095 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tschmealk, J.

Ure, A. M.

J. Inczedy, T. Lengyel, and A. M. Ure, Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature. The Orange Book, 3rd ed. (Blackwell, 1998).

White, I. M.

X. Fan and I. M. White, Nat. Photonics 5, 591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

Zeni, L.

R. Bernini, N. Cennamo, A. Minardo, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sens. J. 6, 1218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, M. Jenkins, P. Measor, K. Leake, S. Liu, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

S. Folestad, L. Johnson, B. Josefsson, and B. Galle, Anal. Chem. 54, 925 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Zhao, M. Jenkins, P. Measor, K. Leake, S. Liu, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

C. R. Taitt, G. P. Anderson, and F. S. Ligler, Biosens. Bioelectron. 20, 2470 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Compt. Rend. (1)

D. Colladon, Compt. Rend. 15, 800 (1842).

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

R. Bernini, N. Cennamo, A. Minardo, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sens. J. 6, 1218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (2)

R. Irawan, C. M. Tay, S. C. Tjin, and C. Y. Fu, Lab Chip 6, 1095 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Chen, M. M. Eberle, E. J. Lunt, S. Liu, K. Leake, M. I. Rudenko, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Lab Chip 11, 1502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

X. Fan and I. M. White, Nat. Photonics 5, 591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Sensors (1)

R. Gravina, G. Testa, and R. Bernini, Sensors 9, 10423 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Technol. (1)

B. Richerzhagen, Solid State Technol. 44, 25 (2001).

Other (2)

S. J. Mackenzie, J. Hodgkinson, M. Johnson, and J. P. Dakin, “A falling analyte stream configuration for spectroscopic analysis of aqueous solutions,” presented at Europto EnviroSense, Munich, Germany (16–20 June 1997).

J. Inczedy, T. Lengyel, and A. M. Ure, Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature. The Orange Book, 3rd ed. (Blackwell, 1998).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the optofluidic water-jet waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Device fabrication steps.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Side view of the optofluidic device with the liquid jet formed and illuminated (a) and without (b).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Fluorescence spectra for different concentrations of Cy5. The narrow peak at 640 nm is the small contribution coming from the source.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Calibration curves of the devices for Cy5 solutions ranging from 8.67×1010 to 1.69×106. The horizontal line is drawn considering three times the value of the standard deviation calculated on blank measurements. The LOD is 2.56 nM.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Calibration curves of the devices in a filter-free detection configuration. The LOD is 6.11 nM.

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