Abstract

Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplification is obtained in directly written As2S3 channel waveguides. Centimeter-long waveguides were written using a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser, operating at a central wavelength of 810 nm. The cross-section of the waveguides was of 4μm×1μm. A Brillouin frequency shift of 7.5 GHz is observed, in general agreement with corresponding previous studies. The SBS gain spectrum in the short waveguides is comparatively broad, with a full width at half-maximum of 200 MHz. We attribute the broad linewidth to the spatial evolution of the electromagnetic field profile along the waveguide.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, R. Song, J. Ryan, J. Irudayaraj, Y. Ding, and C. Pantano, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 584 (2006).
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Cha, D. H.

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Davies, B. L.

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A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, R. Song, J. Ryan, J. Irudayaraj, Y. Ding, and C. Pantano, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 584 (2006).
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Fan, S.

Florea, C. M.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, F. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148 (2006).
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Galili, M.

Ganjoo, A.

A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, R. Song, J. Ryan, J. Irudayaraj, Y. Ding, and C. Pantano, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 584 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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He, Z.

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Heo, J.

Hile, S.

Hodelin, J.

Horiguchi, T.

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K. Y. Song, K. S. Abedin, K. Hotate, M. González Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, Opt. Express 14, 5860 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Hotate, R. Watanabe, Z. He, and M. Kishi, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Sensors 22 Conference (SPIE, 2012), post-deadline paper, Vol. 8421.

Hwang, Y.

Irudayaraj, J.

A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, R. Song, J. Ryan, J. Irudayaraj, Y. Ding, and C. Pantano, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 584 (2006).
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A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, R. Song, J. Ryan, J. Irudayaraj, Y. Ding, and C. Pantano, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 584 (2006).
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Jeppesen, P.

Kim, H.-J.

Kim, J.-H.

Kishi, M.

K. Hotate, R. Watanabe, Z. He, and M. Kishi, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Sensors 22 Conference (SPIE, 2012), post-deadline paper, Vol. 8421.

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I. Abdullhalim, M. Gelbaor, M. Klebanov, and V. Lyubin, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1192 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Spektor, J. Shamir, V. Lyubin, and M. Klebanov, Opt. Eng. 42, 3279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, F. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148 (2006).
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Lenz, G.

Li, E.

Lopez, C.

Luan, F.

Luther-Davies, B.

Lyubin, V.

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B. Spektor, J. Shamir, V. Lyubin, and M. Klebanov, Opt. Eng. 42, 3279 (2003).
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Madden, S.

Madden, S. J.

Mägi, E. C.

Mcfarlane, H.

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Nguyen, V. Q.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, F. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148 (2006).
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Sanghera, J.

Sanghera, J. S.

J. S. Sanghera and I. D. Aggarwal, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256–257, 6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, F. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148 (2006).
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Schulte, A.

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B. Spektor, J. Shamir, V. Lyubin, and M. Klebanov, Opt. Eng. 42, 3279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, L. B.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, F. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Shibata, N.

Sigel, G. H.

Slusher, R. E.

Song, K. Y.

Song, R.

A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, R. Song, J. Ryan, J. Irudayaraj, Y. Ding, and C. Pantano, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 584 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spektor, B.

B. Spektor, J. Shamir, V. Lyubin, and M. Klebanov, Opt. Eng. 42, 3279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ta’eed, V. G.

Tateda, M.

Thevenaz, L.

Thévenaz, L.

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W. Vogel, Chemistry of Glass (The American Ceramic Society, 1985).

Watanabe, R.

K. Hotate, R. Watanabe, Z. He, and M. Kishi, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Sensors 22 Conference (SPIE, 2012), post-deadline paper, Vol. 8421.

Xu, J.

Yeom, D. I.

Yu, C.

A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, R. Song, J. Ryan, J. Irudayaraj, Y. Ding, and C. Pantano, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 584 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zakery, A.

A. Zakery, P. J. S. Owen, and A. E. Owen, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198, 769 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zoubir, A.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (3)

A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, R. Song, J. Ryan, J. Irudayaraj, Y. Ding, and C. Pantano, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 584 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sanghera and I. D. Aggarwal, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256–257, 6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Zakery, P. J. S. Owen, and A. E. Owen, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198, 769 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. (1)

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, F. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. Spektor, J. Shamir, V. Lyubin, and M. Klebanov, Opt. Eng. 42, 3279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Other (2)

K. Hotate, R. Watanabe, Z. He, and M. Kishi, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Sensors 22 Conference (SPIE, 2012), post-deadline paper, Vol. 8421.

W. Vogel, Chemistry of Glass (The American Ceramic Society, 1985).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Illustration of an As2S3 film deposited on top of a silica-on-silicon substrate, before (a) and after (b) direct waveguide writing. Top view, microscope images of a waveguide, before (c) and after (d) the coupling of visible light. For this specific waveguide, the As2S3 film was deposited on a microscope slide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Block diagram of SBS amplification measurement setup. TLS, tunable laser; RF, radio frequency signal generator; SOA, semiconductor optical amplifier; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; PC, polarization controller; PM, power meter; O/E, optical to electrical detector; FBG, fiber Bragg grating; MZM, Mach–Zehnder amplitude modulator.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Pulsed SBS amplification of probe signals.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured SBS gain as a function of the frequency offset between pump and probe waves in a 1 cm long, directly written As2S3 waveguide. The average power of the pump wave coupled into the waveguide was 16.5 dBm. The pump was pulsed at a duty cycle of 10%.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transverse profiles and effective indices of the first- (a) and fourth- (b) order, TE-polarized modes supported by the directly written waveguides. Maps show the time-averaged intensity flow along the direction of propagation.

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