Abstract

We demonstrate a miniaturized fiber in-line Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on an inner air cavity adjacent to the fiber core for high-temperature sensing. The inner air cavity is fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining and the fusion splicing technique. Such a device is robust and insensitive to ambient refractive index change, and has high temperature sensitivity of 43.2pm/°C, up to 1000°C, and low cross sensitivity to strain.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011 (2)

Y. Li, M. Yang, C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, J. Lu, and P. X. Lu, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 1555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Jiang, J. Yang, S. Wang, B. Li, and M. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 3753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

Y. Wang, M. Yang, D. N. Wang, S. Liu, and P. Lu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 370 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, Y. Li, C. Liao, D. N. Wang, M. Yang, and P. Lu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. Park, S. Lee, W. Ha, D. K. Kim, W. Shin, I. B. Sohn, and K. Oh, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2006 (2)

D. Monzón-Hernández, V. P. Minkovich, and J. Villatoro, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and R. B. Walker, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2002 (1)

G. Brambilla and H. Rutt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Bandyopadhyay, S.

Bay, H.

Bhatia, V.

Brambilla, G.

G. Brambilla and H. Rutt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brodeur, A.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

Choi, E. S.

Choi, H. Y.

Chung, Y.

Cook, K.

Grobnic, D.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and R. B. Walker, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ha, W.

M. Park, S. Lee, W. Ha, D. K. Kim, W. Shin, I. B. Sohn, and K. Oh, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hao, J.

Hu, J.

Huang, Z.

Hwang, D.

Jiang, L.

Kim, D. K.

M. Park, S. Lee, W. Ha, D. K. Kim, W. Shin, I. B. Sohn, and K. Oh, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

Lee, S.

M. Park, S. Lee, W. Ha, D. K. Kim, W. Shin, I. B. Sohn, and K. Oh, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

Li, Y.

Y. Li, M. Yang, C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, J. Lu, and P. X. Lu, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 1555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, Y. Li, C. Liao, D. N. Wang, M. Yang, and P. Lu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C.

Y. Wang, Y. Li, C. Liao, D. N. Wang, M. Yang, and P. Lu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C. R.

Y. Li, M. Yang, C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, J. Lu, and P. X. Lu, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 1555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Lu, C.

Lu, J.

Y. Li, M. Yang, C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, J. Lu, and P. X. Lu, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 1555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

Y. Wang, M. Yang, D. N. Wang, S. Liu, and P. Lu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 370 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, Y. Li, C. Liao, D. N. Wang, M. Yang, and P. Lu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P. X.

Y. Li, M. Yang, C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, J. Lu, and P. X. Lu, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 1555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mihailov, S. J.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and R. B. Walker, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Minkovich, V. P.

D. Monzón-Hernández, V. P. Minkovich, and J. Villatoro, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Monzón-Hernández, D.

D. Monzón-Hernández, V. P. Minkovich, and J. Villatoro, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moon, D. S.

Moon, S.

Nguyen, L. V.

Oh, K.

M. Park, S. Lee, W. Ha, D. K. Kim, W. Shin, I. B. Sohn, and K. Oh, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U. C.

Park, K. S.

Park, M.

M. Park, S. Lee, W. Ha, D. K. Kim, W. Shin, I. B. Sohn, and K. Oh, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

Rutt, H.

G. Brambilla and H. Rutt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shen, F.

Shin, W.

M. Park, S. Lee, W. Ha, D. K. Kim, W. Shin, I. B. Sohn, and K. Oh, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

Smelser, C. W.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and R. B. Walker, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, I. B.

M. Park, S. Lee, W. Ha, D. K. Kim, W. Shin, I. B. Sohn, and K. Oh, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, M.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Villatoro, J.

D. Monzón-Hernández, V. P. Minkovich, and J. Villatoro, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walker, R. B.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and R. B. Walker, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

Wang, D. N.

Y. Li, M. Yang, C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, J. Lu, and P. X. Lu, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 1555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, Y. Li, C. Liao, D. N. Wang, M. Yang, and P. Lu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, M. Yang, D. N. Wang, S. Liu, and P. Lu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 370 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Wang, S.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, M. Yang, D. N. Wang, S. Liu, and P. Lu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 370 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, Y. Li, C. Liao, D. N. Wang, M. Yang, and P. Lu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M.

Yang, J.

Yang, M.

Y. Li, M. Yang, C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, J. Lu, and P. X. Lu, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 1555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, M. Yang, D. N. Wang, S. Liu, and P. Lu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 370 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, Y. Li, C. Liao, D. N. Wang, M. Yang, and P. Lu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

Zhu, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Brambilla and H. Rutt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Y. Li, M. Yang, C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, J. Lu, and P. X. Lu, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 1555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

D. Monzón-Hernández, V. P. Minkovich, and J. Villatoro, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, Y. Li, C. Liao, D. N. Wang, M. Yang, and P. Lu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Park, S. Lee, W. Ha, D. K. Kim, W. Shin, I. B. Sohn, and K. Oh, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and R. B. Walker, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (6)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the fiber in-line MZI proposed.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Illustration of the fiber in-line MZI fabrication process. (a) Microstructure created at the end of fiber tip. (b) Microscope image of the fiber tip with microsquare structure. (c) Air cavity adjacent to the fiber core formed in SMF. (d) Microscope image of the air-cavity formed in SMF. (e) The air cavity with microstructure. (f) Microscope images of the side view and top view (inset) of the air cavity with microstructure.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Interference spectrum with or without microstructure on the inner surface of the air cavity.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Interference spectra of the fiber in-line fiber MZI at different temperatures. (b) Interference dip wavelength versus temperature.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Interference spectra of the in-line fiber MZI immersed in different RI liquids.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Interference dip shift versus strain.

Equations (2)

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I=Iout1+Iout2+2Iout1Iout2cos(2πLΔneffλ+φ0),
dλdT=λneffcore(T)neffcavity(T)(dneffcore(T)dTdneffcavity(T)dT),

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