Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a novel detection scheme of clock signals and obtain an ultrahigh resonance contrast up to 90%, which leads to the remarkable improvement of the precision of the signal-to-noise ratio. The frequency stability in terms of Allan deviation of the proposed detection scheme is improved by an order of magnitude under equivalent conditions.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Vanier and C. Audion, The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards, 1st ed. (Adam Hilger, 1989), p. 628.
  2. M. Ardit and T. R. Carver, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 13, 146 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Godone, S. Micalizio, and F. Levi, Phys. Rev. A 70, 023409 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. Phillips, R. Walsworth, A. Zobrov, V. Velichansky, A. Taichenachev, and V. Yudin, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013833 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Vanier, Appl. Phys. B 81, 421 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. Phillips, A. Taichenachev, V. Yudin, R. Walsworth, and A. Zibrov, Phys. Rev. A 72011901(R) (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Micalizio, C. Calosso, A. Godone, and F. Levi, Metrologia 49, 425 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Zigdon, A. Wilson-Gordon, S. Guttikonda, E. Bahr, O. Neitzke, S. Rochester, and D. Budker, Opt. Express 18, 25494 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Gawlik, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, and F. Träger, Opt. Commun. 12, 400 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Lvovsky, B. Sanders, and W. Tittel, Nat. Photonics 3, 706 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. Gawlik, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, and H. B. Wiegemann, J. Phys. B 12, 3873 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics(Cambridge Univ., 1997), Chap. 6.
  15. J. Vanier and C. Mandache, Appl. Phys. B 87, 565 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Micalizio, A. Godone, C. Calosso, F. Levi, C. Affolderbach, and F. Gruet, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 457 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

S. Micalizio, C. Calosso, A. Godone, and F. Levi, Metrologia 49, 425 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Micalizio, A. Godone, C. Calosso, F. Levi, C. Affolderbach, and F. Gruet, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

T. Zigdon, A. Wilson-Gordon, S. Guttikonda, E. Bahr, O. Neitzke, S. Rochester, and D. Budker, Opt. Express 18, 25494 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. Phillips, R. Walsworth, A. Zobrov, V. Velichansky, A. Taichenachev, and V. Yudin, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013833 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

A. Lvovsky, B. Sanders, and W. Tittel, Nat. Photonics 3, 706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Vanier and C. Mandache, Appl. Phys. B 87, 565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. Vanier, Appl. Phys. B 81, 421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. Phillips, A. Taichenachev, V. Yudin, R. Walsworth, and A. Zibrov, Phys. Rev. A 72011901(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Godone, S. Micalizio, and F. Levi, Phys. Rev. A 70, 023409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

W. Gawlik, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, and H. B. Wiegemann, J. Phys. B 12, 3873 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

W. Gawlik, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, and F. Träger, Opt. Commun. 12, 400 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

D. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

M. Ardit and T. R. Carver, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 13, 146 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Affolderbach, C.

S. Micalizio, A. Godone, C. Calosso, F. Levi, C. Affolderbach, and F. Gruet, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D.

D. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ardit, M.

M. Ardit and T. R. Carver, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 13, 146 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Audion, C.

J. Vanier and C. Audion, The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards, 1st ed. (Adam Hilger, 1989), p. 628.

Bahr, E.

Budker, D.

T. Zigdon, A. Wilson-Gordon, S. Guttikonda, E. Bahr, O. Neitzke, S. Rochester, and D. Budker, Opt. Express 18, 25494 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Calosso, C.

S. Micalizio, A. Godone, C. Calosso, F. Levi, C. Affolderbach, and F. Gruet, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Micalizio, C. Calosso, A. Godone, and F. Levi, Metrologia 49, 425 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Carver, T. R.

M. Ardit and T. R. Carver, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 13, 146 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Gawlik, W.

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Gawlik, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, and H. B. Wiegemann, J. Phys. B 12, 3873 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. Gawlik, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, and F. Träger, Opt. Commun. 12, 400 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Godone, A.

S. Micalizio, A. Godone, C. Calosso, F. Levi, C. Affolderbach, and F. Gruet, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Micalizio, C. Calosso, A. Godone, and F. Levi, Metrologia 49, 425 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Godone, S. Micalizio, and F. Levi, Phys. Rev. A 70, 023409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gruet, F.

S. Micalizio, A. Godone, C. Calosso, F. Levi, C. Affolderbach, and F. Gruet, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Guttikonda, S.

Kimball, D.

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, J.

W. Gawlik, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, and H. B. Wiegemann, J. Phys. B 12, 3873 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. Gawlik, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, and F. Träger, Opt. Commun. 12, 400 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Levi, F.

S. Micalizio, A. Godone, C. Calosso, F. Levi, C. Affolderbach, and F. Gruet, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Micalizio, C. Calosso, A. Godone, and F. Levi, Metrologia 49, 425 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Godone, S. Micalizio, and F. Levi, Phys. Rev. A 70, 023409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lvovsky, A.

A. Lvovsky, B. Sanders, and W. Tittel, Nat. Photonics 3, 706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mandache, C.

J. Vanier and C. Mandache, Appl. Phys. B 87, 565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Micalizio, S.

S. Micalizio, A. Godone, C. Calosso, F. Levi, C. Affolderbach, and F. Gruet, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Micalizio, C. Calosso, A. Godone, and F. Levi, Metrologia 49, 425 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Godone, S. Micalizio, and F. Levi, Phys. Rev. A 70, 023409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neitzke, O.

Neumann, R.

W. Gawlik, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, and H. B. Wiegemann, J. Phys. B 12, 3873 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. Gawlik, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, and F. Träger, Opt. Commun. 12, 400 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Novikova, I.

S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. Phillips, R. Walsworth, A. Zobrov, V. Velichansky, A. Taichenachev, and V. Yudin, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013833 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. Phillips, A. Taichenachev, V. Yudin, R. Walsworth, and A. Zibrov, Phys. Rev. A 72011901(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, D.

S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. Phillips, R. Walsworth, A. Zobrov, V. Velichansky, A. Taichenachev, and V. Yudin, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013833 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. Phillips, A. Taichenachev, V. Yudin, R. Walsworth, and A. Zibrov, Phys. Rev. A 72011901(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rochester, S.

T. Zigdon, A. Wilson-Gordon, S. Guttikonda, E. Bahr, O. Neitzke, S. Rochester, and D. Budker, Opt. Express 18, 25494 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, B.

A. Lvovsky, B. Sanders, and W. Tittel, Nat. Photonics 3, 706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scully, M. O.

M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics(Cambridge Univ., 1997), Chap. 6.

Taichenachev, A.

S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. Phillips, R. Walsworth, A. Zobrov, V. Velichansky, A. Taichenachev, and V. Yudin, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013833 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. Phillips, A. Taichenachev, V. Yudin, R. Walsworth, and A. Zibrov, Phys. Rev. A 72011901(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, W.

A. Lvovsky, B. Sanders, and W. Tittel, Nat. Photonics 3, 706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Träger, F.

W. Gawlik, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, and F. Träger, Opt. Commun. 12, 400 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Vanier, J.

J. Vanier and C. Mandache, Appl. Phys. B 87, 565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Vanier, Appl. Phys. B 81, 421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Vanier and C. Audion, The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards, 1st ed. (Adam Hilger, 1989), p. 628.

Velichansky, V.

S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. Phillips, R. Walsworth, A. Zobrov, V. Velichansky, A. Taichenachev, and V. Yudin, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013833 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Walsworth, R.

S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. Phillips, R. Walsworth, A. Zobrov, V. Velichansky, A. Taichenachev, and V. Yudin, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013833 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. Phillips, A. Taichenachev, V. Yudin, R. Walsworth, and A. Zibrov, Phys. Rev. A 72011901(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weis, A.

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wiegemann, H. B.

W. Gawlik, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, and H. B. Wiegemann, J. Phys. B 12, 3873 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wilson-Gordon, A.

Yashchuk, V.

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yudin, V.

S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. Phillips, R. Walsworth, A. Zobrov, V. Velichansky, A. Taichenachev, and V. Yudin, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013833 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. Phillips, A. Taichenachev, V. Yudin, R. Walsworth, and A. Zibrov, Phys. Rev. A 72011901(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zibrov, A.

S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. Phillips, A. Taichenachev, V. Yudin, R. Walsworth, and A. Zibrov, Phys. Rev. A 72011901(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zibrov, S.

S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. Phillips, R. Walsworth, A. Zobrov, V. Velichansky, A. Taichenachev, and V. Yudin, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013833 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. Phillips, A. Taichenachev, V. Yudin, R. Walsworth, and A. Zibrov, Phys. Rev. A 72011901(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zigdon, T.

Zobrov, A.

S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. Phillips, R. Walsworth, A. Zobrov, V. Velichansky, A. Taichenachev, and V. Yudin, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013833 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zubairy, M. S.

M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics(Cambridge Univ., 1997), Chap. 6.

Appl. Phys. B (2)

J. Vanier, Appl. Phys. B 81, 421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Vanier and C. Mandache, Appl. Phys. B 87, 565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

M. Ardit and T. R. Carver, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 13, 146 (1964).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

S. Micalizio, A. Godone, C. Calosso, F. Levi, C. Affolderbach, and F. Gruet, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

W. Gawlik, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, and H. B. Wiegemann, J. Phys. B 12, 3873 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

S. Micalizio, C. Calosso, A. Godone, and F. Levi, Metrologia 49, 425 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Lvovsky, B. Sanders, and W. Tittel, Nat. Photonics 3, 706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Gawlik, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, and F. Träger, Opt. Commun. 12, 400 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. Phillips, A. Taichenachev, V. Yudin, R. Walsworth, and A. Zibrov, Phys. Rev. A 72011901(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Godone, S. Micalizio, and F. Levi, Phys. Rev. A 70, 023409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. Phillips, R. Walsworth, A. Zobrov, V. Velichansky, A. Taichenachev, and V. Yudin, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013833 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. Vanier and C. Audion, The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards, 1st ed. (Adam Hilger, 1989), p. 628.

M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics(Cambridge Univ., 1997), Chap. 6.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Setup for dispersive detection. P, quarter-wave plate; M, mirror; PBS, polarized beam splitter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Energy levels of Rb87 D1 line interacting with laser and microwave. (b) Timing sequence. MW, microwave field.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental results of (a) dispersive and (b) absorptive detection of the Ramsey fringes. tp=2ms, T=4ms, Ωtm=π/8, and td=0.2ms.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Allan deviations of dispersive (triangles) and absorptive (circles) detection. The local oscillators are locked on the Ramsey fringes in Figs. 3(a) and 3(b). The reference frequency standard is the H maser whose stability is 2×1013 at 1 s and 2×1015 after 104s.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Central zone of Ramsey fringes with pulse Ωtm=π/8 (solid curve) and Ωtm=π/2 (dashed curve).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ(τ)=1πQ·SNRTcτ,
Is=|E0|2exp[(α++α)kL]sin2[(n+n)kL2],
α±=2NPε0g,edge2Im(σge±)Ωge,
n±=NPε0g,edge2Re(σge±)Ωge,

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