Abstract

In this Letter, the main attributes known to affect color quality are treated statistically over a set of 118 spectra representing the current mainstream lighting technology. The color rendering index (CRI) is used to assess color fidelity while colorfulness is used to complement CRI-Ra, supported by the growing evidence that assessment of light spectra cannot overlook color preference inputs. Colorfulness is evaluated by our optimal color (Oc) index, through a code that computes the (MacAdam) theoretical maximum volumetric gamut of objects under a given illuminant for all the spectra in our database. Pearson correlation coefficients for CRI-Ra, the (Y. Ohno’s) color quality scale (CQS) and Oc show a high correlation (0.950) between CRI-Ra and CQS-Qa, while Oc shows the lowest correlation (0.577) with CRI-Ra, meaning that Oc represents the best complement to CRI-Ra and Qa for an in-depth study of color quality.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, Opt. Express 19, 8151 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, Color Res. Appl. 36, 192 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier, Color Res. Appl. 35, 401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, Opt. Eng. 49, 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Masaoka, Opt. Lett. 35, 2031 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

A. Šukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1753 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. M. Linhares, P. D. A. Pinto, and S. M. C. Nascimento, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1668 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2004 (2)

X. Guo and K. W. Houser, Lighting Res. Technol. 36, 183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohno, Proc. SPIE 5530, 88 (2004).

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1935 (2)

1920 (1)

E. Schrödinger, Ann. Phys. 367, 603 (1920).
[CrossRef]

Akashi, Y.

Y. Akashi, Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, New York 12180, USA (personal communication, 2004).

Bartleson, C. J.

Carreras, J.

Chorro, E.

Davis, W.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, Opt. Eng. 49, 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Fez, D.

Deconinck, G.

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, Color Res. Appl. 36, 192 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, Opt. Express 19, 8151 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Freyssinier, J. P.

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier, Color Res. Appl. 35, 401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

X. Guo and K. W. Houser, Lighting Res. Technol. 36, 183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hanselaer, P.

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, Opt. Express 19, 8151 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, Color Res. Appl. 36, 192 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Houser, K. W.

X. Guo and K. W. Houser, Lighting Res. Technol. 36, 183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, C.

Ivanauskas, F.

A. Šukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1753 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Linhares, J. M. M.

MacAdam, D. L.

Martínez-Verdú, F.

Masaoka, K.

Masuda, O.

Masuda, Osamu

Nascimento, S. M. C.

Ohno, Y.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, Opt. Eng. 49, 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohno, Proc. SPIE 5530, 88 (2004).

Perales, E.

Pinto, P. D. A.

Pointer, M. R.

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, Opt. Express 19, 8151 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, Color Res. Appl. 36, 192 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Quintero, J.

Rea, M. S.

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier, Color Res. Appl. 35, 401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ryckaert, W. R.

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, Opt. Express 19, 8151 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, Color Res. Appl. 36, 192 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schrödinger, E.

E. Schrödinger, Ann. Phys. 367, 603 (1920).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M. S.

A. Šukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1753 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smet, K.

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, Color Res. Appl. 36, 192 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, Opt. Express 19, 8151 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sudrià, A.

Šukauskas, A.

A. Šukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1753 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vaicekauskas, R.

A. Šukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1753 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vaitkevicius, H.

A. Šukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1753 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Viqueira, V.

Vitta, P.

A. Šukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1753 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (1)

E. Schrödinger, Ann. Phys. 367, 603 (1920).
[CrossRef]

Color Res. Appl. (2)

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier, Color Res. Appl. 35, 401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, Color Res. Appl. 36, 192 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Šukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1753 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Lighting Res. Technol. (1)

X. Guo and K. W. Houser, Lighting Res. Technol. 36, 183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, Opt. Eng. 49, 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y. Ohno, Proc. SPIE 5530, 88 (2004).

Other (2)

CIE, “Method of measuring and specifying colour rendering properties of light sources,” CIE (Central Bureau Vienna, Austria, 1995).

Y. Akashi, Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, New York 12180, USA (personal communication, 2004).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Spectrum of a noncommercial 3000 K white RGB LED and (b) 2D saturation plot for the same 3000 K RGB LED with Qg=111 as compared to a CIE D65 standard illuminant (perfect circumference). Figure composed of images adapted from NIST spreadsheet Color Quality Scale ver 9.0.a 2011.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optimal color volume (Vch) for the 3000 K—typical RGB light source of Fig. 1.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Qa, Ra (left axis) and Qa-Ra (right axis) as a function of the statistical percentiles and (b) Oc, Ra (left axis) and Oc-Ra (right axis) as a function of the statistical percentiles.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Pearson Coefficients of Correlation Between Different Pairs of Color-Related Indexes for the 118-Spectra Databasea

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Qg=100(Gamut AreatestGamut Arearef)CIELAB
Oc=100(VchtestVchref)CIELAB.

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