Abstract

A low-threshold solid-state UV laser using a whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator constructed from UV transparent crystalline material is demonstrated. Using a Ce3+:LiCaAlF6 resonator, we observe broad bandwidth lasing (280–330 nm) with a low threshold intensity of 7.5×109W/m2 and an effective slope efficiency of 25%. The lasing time delay dynamics in the pulsed operation mode are also observed and analyzed. Additionally, a LiCaAlF6 WGM resonator with Q=2×107 at 370 nm is realized. The combination of this high Q and the small WGM mode volume significantly lowers the pump power threshold compared to traditional cavity designs, opening the door for both tunable continuous-wave and mode-locked operation.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

W. G. Rellergert, D. DeMille, R. R. Greco, M. P. Hehlen, J. R. Torgerson, and E. R. Hudson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 200802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

2008 (1)

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, Science 319, 1808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. I. Shopova, H. Zhou, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 221101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. Alderighi, G. Toci, M. Vannini, D. Parisi, S. Bigotta, and M. Tonelli, Appl. Phys. B 83, 51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

D. W. Coutts and A. J. S. McGonigle, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, 3 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

P. J. Hargis, T. J. Sobering, G. С. Tisone, J. S. Wagner, S. A. Young, and R. J. Radloff, SPIE 2366, 147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1990 (1)

M. Maeda, T. Sibata, and H. Akiyoshi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 2843 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Akiyoshi, H.

M. Maeda, T. Sibata, and H. Akiyoshi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 2843 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Alderighi, D.

D. Alderighi, G. Toci, M. Vannini, D. Parisi, S. Bigotta, and M. Tonelli, Appl. Phys. B 83, 51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Alderighi, G. Toci, M. Vannini, D. Parisi, and M. Tonelli, Opt. Express 13, 7256 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Armani, A. M.

Bergquist, J. C.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, Science 319, 1808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bigotta, S.

D. Alderighi, G. Toci, M. Vannini, D. Parisi, S. Bigotta, and M. Tonelli, Appl. Phys. B 83, 51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brusch, A.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, Science 319, 1808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cai, C.

Castillo, V.

Chai, B. H. T.

Chou, C. W.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, Science 319, 1808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Coutts, D. W.

E. Granados, D. W. Coutts, and D. J. Spence, Opt. Lett. 34, 1660 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Coutts and A. J. S. McGonigle, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, D. J. Spence, D. W. Coutts, H. Sato, and T. Fukuda, in OSA Topical Meeting on Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper MD1.

DeMille, D.

W. G. Rellergert, D. DeMille, R. R. Greco, M. P. Hehlen, J. R. Torgerson, and E. R. Hudson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 200802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

DeYoung, R.

V. A. Fromzel, C. R. Prasad, K. B. Petrosyan, Y. Liaw, M. A. Yakshin, W. Shi, and R. DeYoung, in Advances in Optical and Photonic Devices, K. Y. Kim, ed. (2010), p. 352.

Diddam, S. A.

Diddams, S. A.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, Science 319, 1808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Drullinger, R. E.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, Science 319, 1808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

S. I. Shopova, H. Zhou, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 221101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fendel, P.

Fortier, T. M.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, Science 319, 1808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fromzel, V. A.

V. A. Fromzel, C. R. Prasad, K. B. Petrosyan, Y. Liaw, M. A. Yakshin, W. Shi, and R. DeYoung, in Advances in Optical and Photonic Devices, K. Y. Kim, ed. (2010), p. 352.

Fukuda, T.

H. Liu, D. J. Spence, D. W. Coutts, H. Sato, and T. Fukuda, in OSA Topical Meeting on Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper MD1.

Granados, E.

Greco, R. R.

W. G. Rellergert, D. DeMille, R. R. Greco, M. P. Hehlen, J. R. Torgerson, and E. R. Hudson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 200802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hansch, T. W.

Hare, J.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, 3 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hargis, P. J.

P. J. Hargis, T. J. Sobering, G. С. Tisone, J. S. Wagner, S. A. Young, and R. J. Radloff, SPIE 2366, 147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Haroche, S.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, 3 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hehlen, M. P.

W. G. Rellergert, D. DeMille, R. R. Greco, M. P. Hehlen, J. R. Torgerson, and E. R. Hudson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 200802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, H.-S.

Hudson, E. R.

W. G. Rellergert, D. DeMille, R. R. Greco, M. P. Hehlen, J. R. Torgerson, and E. R. Hudson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 200802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hume, D. B.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, Science 319, 1808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, in 9th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE Conference Publications, 2007), p. 50.

Itano, W. M.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, Science 319, 1808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

Lefèvre-Seguin, V.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, 3 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

N. Wang, R. Wang, H. Teng, D. Li, and Z. Wei, in Lasers, Sources, Related Photonic Devices, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012).

Liaw, Y.

V. A. Fromzel, C. R. Prasad, K. B. Petrosyan, Y. Liaw, M. A. Yakshin, W. Shi, and R. DeYoung, in Advances in Optical and Photonic Devices, K. Y. Kim, ed. (2010), p. 352.

Liu, H.

H. Liu, D. J. Spence, D. W. Coutts, H. Sato, and T. Fukuda, in OSA Topical Meeting on Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper MD1.

Lorini, L.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, Science 319, 1808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, M.

M. Maeda, T. Sibata, and H. Akiyoshi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 2843 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, in 9th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE Conference Publications, 2007), p. 50.

Marshall, C. D.

Matsko, A. B.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, in 9th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE Conference Publications, 2007), p. 50.

McGonigle, A. J. S.

D. W. Coutts and A. J. S. McGonigle, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, Science 319, 1808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oskay, W. H.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, Science 319, 1808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ostby, E.

Parisi, D.

D. Alderighi, G. Toci, M. Vannini, D. Parisi, S. Bigotta, and M. Tonelli, Appl. Phys. B 83, 51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Alderighi, G. Toci, M. Vannini, D. Parisi, and M. Tonelli, Opt. Express 13, 7256 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

Peter, E.

Petrosyan, K. B.

V. A. Fromzel, C. R. Prasad, K. B. Petrosyan, Y. Liaw, M. A. Yakshin, W. Shi, and R. DeYoung, in Advances in Optical and Photonic Devices, K. Y. Kim, ed. (2010), p. 352.

Prasad, C. R.

V. A. Fromzel, C. R. Prasad, K. B. Petrosyan, Y. Liaw, M. A. Yakshin, W. Shi, and R. DeYoung, in Advances in Optical and Photonic Devices, K. Y. Kim, ed. (2010), p. 352.

Quarles, G. J.

Radloff, R. J.

P. J. Hargis, T. J. Sobering, G. С. Tisone, J. S. Wagner, S. A. Young, and R. J. Radloff, SPIE 2366, 147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, J.-M.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, 3 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, S.

Rellergert, W. G.

W. G. Rellergert, D. DeMille, R. R. Greco, M. P. Hehlen, J. R. Torgerson, and E. R. Hudson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 200802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rosenband, T.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, Science 319, 1808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, 3 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sato, H.

H. Liu, D. J. Spence, D. W. Coutts, H. Sato, and T. Fukuda, in OSA Topical Meeting on Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper MD1.

Savchenkov, A. A.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, in 9th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE Conference Publications, 2007), p. 50.

Schmidt, P. O.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, Science 319, 1808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W.

V. A. Fromzel, C. R. Prasad, K. B. Petrosyan, Y. Liaw, M. A. Yakshin, W. Shi, and R. DeYoung, in Advances in Optical and Photonic Devices, K. Y. Kim, ed. (2010), p. 352.

Shopova, S. I.

S. I. Shopova, H. Zhou, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 221101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sibata, T.

M. Maeda, T. Sibata, and H. Akiyoshi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 2843 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sobering, T. J.

P. J. Hargis, T. J. Sobering, G. С. Tisone, J. S. Wagner, S. A. Young, and R. J. Radloff, SPIE 2366, 147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spence, D. J.

E. Granados, D. W. Coutts, and D. J. Spence, Opt. Lett. 34, 1660 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, D. J. Spence, D. W. Coutts, H. Sato, and T. Fukuda, in OSA Topical Meeting on Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper MD1.

Speth, J. A.

Stalnaker, J. E.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, Science 319, 1808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Strekalov, D.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, in 9th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE Conference Publications, 2007), p. 50.

Swann, W. C.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, Science 319, 1808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Teng, H.

N. Wang, R. Wang, H. Teng, D. Li, and Z. Wei, in Lasers, Sources, Related Photonic Devices, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012).

Tisone, G. ?.

P. J. Hargis, T. J. Sobering, G. С. Tisone, J. S. Wagner, S. A. Young, and R. J. Radloff, SPIE 2366, 147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Toci, G.

D. Alderighi, G. Toci, M. Vannini, D. Parisi, S. Bigotta, and M. Tonelli, Appl. Phys. B 83, 51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Alderighi, G. Toci, M. Vannini, D. Parisi, and M. Tonelli, Opt. Express 13, 7256 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tonelli, M.

D. Alderighi, G. Toci, M. Vannini, D. Parisi, S. Bigotta, and M. Tonelli, Appl. Phys. B 83, 51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Alderighi, G. Toci, M. Vannini, D. Parisi, and M. Tonelli, Opt. Express 13, 7256 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Torgerson, J. R.

W. G. Rellergert, D. DeMille, R. R. Greco, M. P. Hehlen, J. R. Torgerson, and E. R. Hudson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 200802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Treussart, F.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, 3 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Udem, Th.

Vahala, K.

Vannini, M.

D. Alderighi, G. Toci, M. Vannini, D. Parisi, S. Bigotta, and M. Tonelli, Appl. Phys. B 83, 51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Alderighi, G. Toci, M. Vannini, D. Parisi, and M. Tonelli, Opt. Express 13, 7256 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, J. S.

P. J. Hargis, T. J. Sobering, G. С. Tisone, J. S. Wagner, S. A. Young, and R. J. Radloff, SPIE 2366, 147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, N.

N. Wang, R. Wang, H. Teng, D. Li, and Z. Wei, in Lasers, Sources, Related Photonic Devices, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012).

Wang, R.

N. Wang, R. Wang, H. Teng, D. Li, and Z. Wei, in Lasers, Sources, Related Photonic Devices, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012).

Wei, Z.

N. Wang, R. Wang, H. Teng, D. Li, and Z. Wei, in Lasers, Sources, Related Photonic Devices, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012).

Wineland, D. J.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, Science 319, 1808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yakshin, M. A.

V. A. Fromzel, C. R. Prasad, K. B. Petrosyan, Y. Liaw, M. A. Yakshin, W. Shi, and R. DeYoung, in Advances in Optical and Photonic Devices, K. Y. Kim, ed. (2010), p. 352.

Young, S. A.

P. J. Hargis, T. J. Sobering, G. С. Tisone, J. S. Wagner, S. A. Young, and R. J. Radloff, SPIE 2366, 147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, in 9th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE Conference Publications, 2007), p. 50.

Zhou, H.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the energy level structure in Ce:LiCAF crystal and related parameter designation. (b) Side and top view images of WGM resonator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the UV laser experimental setup. The 266 nm pump laser beam is projected from the top of the resonator disk.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental and simulated laser output as a function of the total pump energy, showing the lasing threshold of 1.6 μJ.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

UV WGM laser spectrum at several pump energies. The spectral profile of the pump light is also shown.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Simulated lasing pulse dynamics above threshold at 3.2 μJ pump energy. (b) Experimental and simulated delays as a function of the pump energy.

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