Abstract

Optical microsystems have become important tools for imaging, optofluidics, and sensor applications. Here we show a versatile method to create microlens arrays (MAs) exploiting spatial-light-modulator-assisted polarization holography, which enables an efficiency of diffraction up to 100%. We demonstrate the large flexibility of the proposed approach by codifying mixed MAs, i.e., composed of spherical and cylindrical lenses with different focal lengths, either positive or negative. Reconfigurable MAs with 70% total diffraction efficiency have been recorded on a photosensitive polymer that exhibits linear photoinduced birefringence with long time stability as well as optical and thermal reversibility. The good quality of the MA has been shown by a digital holographic test.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (3)

2011 (1)

P. Fei, Z. He, C. Zheng, T. Chen, Y. Men, and Y. Huang, Lab Chip 11, 2835 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

S. Grilli, V. Vespini, and P. Ferraro, Langmuir 24, 13262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. J. W. Hands, S. M. Morris, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, Opt. Lett. 33, 515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, P. Pagliusi, C. Provenzano, and V. P. Shibaev, Macromolecules 41, 5992 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (5)

S. Dong-Hak, L. Byoungho, and K. Eun-Soo, ETRI J. 28, 521 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Pan, L. Liu, H. Liu, and S. Deng, Chin. Opt. Lett. 4, 265 (2006).

C. Provenzano, G. Cipparrone, and A. Mazzulla, Appl. Opt. 45, 3929 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Ramanujam, C. Dam-Hansen, R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, and L. Nikolova, Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. H. Wu, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, Langmuir 18, 9312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Danzebrink and M. A. Aegerter, Thin Solid Films 392, 223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1988 (1)

Aegerter, M. A.

R. Danzebrink and M. A. Aegerter, Thin Solid Films 392, 223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Albero, J.

Ares, M.

Arrizón, V.

V. Arrizón, U. Ruiz, and M. L. Cruz, Holography, Research and Technologies, J. Rosen, ed. (InTech, 2011).

Bao, C.

C. Gomez-Reino, M. V. Perez, and C. Bao, Gradient-Index Optics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2002).

Bennet, M.

K. Lee, W. Wagermaier, A. Masic, K. P. Kommareddy, M. Bennet, I. Manjubala, S. Lee, S. B. Park, H. Cölfen, and P. Fratzl, Nat. Commun. 3, 725 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Berg, R. H.

P. S. Ramanujam, C. Dam-Hansen, R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, and L. Nikolova, Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bos, P.

Byoungho, L.

S. Dong-Hak, L. Byoungho, and K. Eun-Soo, ETRI J. 28, 521 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Caum, J.

Chen, T.

P. Fei, Z. He, C. Zheng, T. Chen, Y. Men, and Y. Huang, Lab Chip 11, 2835 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chien, L.

Cipparrone, G.

U. Ruiz, C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, Opt. Lett. 37, 311 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, P. Pagliusi, C. Provenzano, and V. P. Shibaev, Macromolecules 41, 5992 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Provenzano, G. Cipparrone, and A. Mazzulla, Appl. Opt. 45, 3929 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coles, H. J.

Cölfen, H.

K. Lee, W. Wagermaier, A. Masic, K. P. Kommareddy, M. Bennet, I. Manjubala, S. Lee, S. B. Park, H. Cölfen, and P. Fratzl, Nat. Commun. 3, 725 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Coppola, S.

Cruz, M. L.

V. Arrizón, U. Ruiz, and M. L. Cruz, Holography, Research and Technologies, J. Rosen, ed. (InTech, 2011).

Dam-Hansen, C.

P. S. Ramanujam, C. Dam-Hansen, R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, and L. Nikolova, Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Danzebrink, R.

R. Danzebrink and M. A. Aegerter, Thin Solid Films 392, 223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deng, S.

Dong-Hak, S.

S. Dong-Hak, L. Byoungho, and K. Eun-Soo, ETRI J. 28, 521 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Escuti, M. J.

Eun-Soo, K.

S. Dong-Hak, L. Byoungho, and K. Eun-Soo, ETRI J. 28, 521 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fei, P.

P. Fei, Z. He, C. Zheng, T. Chen, Y. Men, and Y. Huang, Lab Chip 11, 2835 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, P.

Fischer, P.

Fratz, M.

Fratzl, P.

K. Lee, W. Wagermaier, A. Masic, K. P. Kommareddy, M. Bennet, I. Manjubala, S. Lee, S. B. Park, H. Cölfen, and P. Fratzl, Nat. Commun. 3, 725 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Giel, D. M.

Gomez, V.

Gomez-Reino, C.

C. Gomez-Reino, M. V. Perez, and C. Bao, Gradient-Index Optics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2002).

Gorecki, C.

Grilli, S.

Grimaldi, I. A.

Hands, P. J. W.

He, Z.

P. Fei, Z. He, C. Zheng, T. Chen, Y. Men, and Y. Huang, Lab Chip 11, 2835 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

P. Fei, Z. He, C. Zheng, T. Chen, Y. Men, and Y. Huang, Lab Chip 11, 2835 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hvilsted, S.

P. S. Ramanujam, C. Dam-Hansen, R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, and L. Nikolova, Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kommareddy, K. P.

K. Lee, W. Wagermaier, A. Masic, K. P. Kommareddy, M. Bennet, I. Manjubala, S. Lee, S. B. Park, H. Cölfen, and P. Fratzl, Nat. Commun. 3, 725 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

K. Lee, W. Wagermaier, A. Masic, K. P. Kommareddy, M. Bennet, I. Manjubala, S. Lee, S. B. Park, H. Cölfen, and P. Fratzl, Nat. Commun. 3, 725 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

K. Lee, W. Wagermaier, A. Masic, K. P. Kommareddy, M. Bennet, I. Manjubala, S. Lee, S. B. Park, H. Cölfen, and P. Fratzl, Nat. Commun. 3, 725 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Liu, H.

Liu, L.

Loffredo, F.

Manjubala, I.

K. Lee, W. Wagermaier, A. Masic, K. P. Kommareddy, M. Bennet, I. Manjubala, S. Lee, S. B. Park, H. Cölfen, and P. Fratzl, Nat. Commun. 3, 725 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Masic, A.

K. Lee, W. Wagermaier, A. Masic, K. P. Kommareddy, M. Bennet, I. Manjubala, S. Lee, S. B. Park, H. Cölfen, and P. Fratzl, Nat. Commun. 3, 725 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, S.

Mazzulla, A.

Men, Y.

P. Fei, Z. He, C. Zheng, T. Chen, Y. Men, and Y. Huang, Lab Chip 11, 2835 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Miccio, L.

Minarini, C.

Morris, S. M.

Neville Connell, G. A.

Nicolescu, E.

Nieradko, L.

Nikolova, L.

P. S. Ramanujam, C. Dam-Hansen, R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, and L. Nikolova, Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nose, T.

Ottevaere, H.

Pagliusi, P.

U. Ruiz, C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, Opt. Lett. 37, 311 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, P. Pagliusi, C. Provenzano, and V. P. Shibaev, Macromolecules 41, 5992 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Päivänranta, B.

Pan, W.

Park, C.

M. H. Wu, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, Langmuir 18, 9312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. B.

K. Lee, W. Wagermaier, A. Masic, K. P. Kommareddy, M. Bennet, I. Manjubala, S. Lee, S. B. Park, H. Cölfen, and P. Fratzl, Nat. Commun. 3, 725 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Passilly, N.

Perez, M. V.

C. Gomez-Reino, M. V. Perez, and C. Bao, Gradient-Index Optics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2002).

Pietarinen, J.

Popovic, Z. D.

Provenzano, C.

U. Ruiz, C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, Opt. Lett. 37, 311 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, P. Pagliusi, C. Provenzano, and V. P. Shibaev, Macromolecules 41, 5992 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Provenzano, G. Cipparrone, and A. Mazzulla, Appl. Opt. 45, 3929 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, P. S.

P. S. Ramanujam, C. Dam-Hansen, R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, and L. Nikolova, Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Royo, S.

Ruiz, U.

U. Ruiz, C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, Opt. Lett. 37, 311 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Arrizón, U. Ruiz, and M. L. Cruz, Holography, Research and Technologies, J. Rosen, ed. (InTech, 2011).

Sato, S.

Shibaev, V. P.

G. Cipparrone, P. Pagliusi, C. Provenzano, and V. P. Shibaev, Macromolecules 41, 5992 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sprague, R. A.

Thienpont, H.

Vespini, V.

Villani, F.

Wagermaier, W.

K. Lee, W. Wagermaier, A. Masic, K. P. Kommareddy, M. Bennet, I. Manjubala, S. Lee, S. B. Park, H. Cölfen, and P. Fratzl, Nat. Commun. 3, 725 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

M. H. Wu, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, Langmuir 18, 9312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, T. D.

Wu, M. H.

M. H. Wu, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, Langmuir 18, 9312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, C.

P. Fei, Z. He, C. Zheng, T. Chen, Y. Men, and Y. Huang, Lab Chip 11, 2835 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

ETRI J. (1)

S. Dong-Hak, L. Byoungho, and K. Eun-Soo, ETRI J. 28, 521 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (1)

P. Fei, Z. He, C. Zheng, T. Chen, Y. Men, and Y. Huang, Lab Chip 11, 2835 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (2)

M. H. Wu, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, Langmuir 18, 9312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Grilli, V. Vespini, and P. Ferraro, Langmuir 24, 13262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

G. Cipparrone, P. Pagliusi, C. Provenzano, and V. P. Shibaev, Macromolecules 41, 5992 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun. (1)

K. Lee, W. Wagermaier, A. Masic, K. P. Kommareddy, M. Bennet, I. Manjubala, S. Lee, S. B. Park, H. Cölfen, and P. Fratzl, Nat. Commun. 3, 725 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

P. S. Ramanujam, C. Dam-Hansen, R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, and L. Nikolova, Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Thin Solid Films (1)

R. Danzebrink and M. A. Aegerter, Thin Solid Films 392, 223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

C. Gomez-Reino, M. V. Perez, and C. Bao, Gradient-Index Optics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2002).

V. Arrizón, U. Ruiz, and M. L. Cruz, Holography, Research and Technologies, J. Rosen, ed. (InTech, 2011).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

3×3 mixed MA. (a) CCD image of the +1 diffracted field at distance 5 cm behind the film, where the field corresponding to the microlenses of the right column is in focus, whereas the field corresponding to the microlenses of the left (f1mP=15cm) and central (f2mP=10cm) columns are defocused. (b) Recovered phase modulation of the diffracted field corresponding to the four microlenses in the dashed square of (a).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

CCD image of the ±1 orders of a 4×4 MA with alternate positive and negative focal lengths, at distance |fnmP|13cm behind of the film. The (a) +1 order has effective focal lengths fnmP(1)n+m13cm, while the (b) 1 order has effective focal lengths fnmP(1)n+m13cm.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E⃗tot=E⃗P+E⃗L=12(1i)eiδ+12(1i)eiψ(x,y)eiδ=12(eiδ+eiψ(x,y)eiδieiδieiψ(x,y)eiδ),
T¯=T¯0+T¯+1+T¯1=[1001]cos(β)+12[i11i]sin(β)eiψ+12[i11i]sin(β)eiψ,
E⃗±1out=T¯±1E⃗inlin=i2sin(β)eiψ(1±i).
E⃗±1out=T¯±1E⃗incirc=(1/2)iΘsin(β)eiψ(1i),

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