Abstract

Through two-photon lithographic processes, we report experimentally and numerically a series of photoinduced tunable polymerization patterns in shapes from straight channel, serpentine curve, to periodic grating when an ultrashort femtosecond laser pulse directly writes in a liquid-crystal-monomer mixture along a line for different scanning speeds. Laser beams with polarization perpendicular to the direction of writing and the alignment of liquid crystals, produce snake-shaped patterns at an intermediate scan rate.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. S.-T. Wu, Phys. Rev. A 33, 1270 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2008 (1)

A. Hoischen, S. A. Benning, and H.-S. Kitzerow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

N. Le Grand-Piteira, A. Daerr, and L. Limat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 252503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C. Dombrowski, B. Lewellyn, A. I. Pesci, J. M. Restrepo, J. O. Kessler, and R. E. Goldstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 184501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. I. Pesci, M. A. Porter, and R. E. Goldstein, Phys. Rev. E 68, 056305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

C. C. Bowley and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Sigel, G. Fytas, N. Vainos, S. Pispas, and N. Hadjichristidis, Science 297, 67 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, Science 272, 85 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S.-T. Wu, E. Ramos, and U. Finkenzeller, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 78 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

S.-T. Wu, Phys. Rev. A 33, 1270 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Benning, S. A.

A. Hoischen, S. A. Benning, and H.-S. Kitzerow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bowley, C. C.

C. C. Bowley and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chou, Y.

Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, Science 272, 85 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, K.-P.

Crawford, G. P.

C. C. Bowley and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Daerr, A.

N. Le Grand-Piteira, A. Daerr, and L. Limat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 252503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dombrowski, C.

C. Dombrowski, B. Lewellyn, A. I. Pesci, J. M. Restrepo, J. O. Kessler, and R. E. Goldstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 184501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Finkenzeller, U.

S.-T. Wu, E. Ramos, and U. Finkenzeller, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 78 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fytas, G.

R. Sigel, G. Fytas, N. Vainos, S. Pispas, and N. Hadjichristidis, Science 297, 67 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, R. E.

C. Dombrowski, B. Lewellyn, A. I. Pesci, J. M. Restrepo, J. O. Kessler, and R. E. Goldstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 184501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Pesci, M. A. Porter, and R. E. Goldstein, Phys. Rev. E 68, 056305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hadjichristidis, N.

R. Sigel, G. Fytas, N. Vainos, S. Pispas, and N. Hadjichristidis, Science 297, 67 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hoischen, A.

A. Hoischen, S. A. Benning, and H.-S. Kitzerow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, K.-C.

Jisha, C. P.

Kawata, S.

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, J. O.

C. Dombrowski, B. Lewellyn, A. I. Pesci, J. M. Restrepo, J. O. Kessler, and R. E. Goldstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 184501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kitzerow, H.-S.

A. Hoischen, S. A. Benning, and H.-S. Kitzerow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, P. R.

Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, Science 272, 85 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Le Grand-Piteira, N.

N. Le Grand-Piteira, A. Daerr, and L. Limat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 252503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R.-K.

Lewellyn, B.

C. Dombrowski, B. Lewellyn, A. I. Pesci, J. M. Restrepo, J. O. Kessler, and R. E. Goldstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 184501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Limat, L.

N. Le Grand-Piteira, A. Daerr, and L. Limat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 252503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.-H.

Lin, Y. Y.

Pesci, A. I.

C. Dombrowski, B. Lewellyn, A. I. Pesci, J. M. Restrepo, J. O. Kessler, and R. E. Goldstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 184501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Pesci, M. A. Porter, and R. E. Goldstein, Phys. Rev. E 68, 056305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pispas, S.

R. Sigel, G. Fytas, N. Vainos, S. Pispas, and N. Hadjichristidis, Science 297, 67 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Porter, M. A.

A. I. Pesci, M. A. Porter, and R. E. Goldstein, Phys. Rev. E 68, 056305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ramos, E.

S.-T. Wu, E. Ramos, and U. Finkenzeller, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 78 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Renstrom, P. J.

Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, Science 272, 85 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Restrepo, J. M.

C. Dombrowski, B. Lewellyn, A. I. Pesci, J. M. Restrepo, J. O. Kessler, and R. E. Goldstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 184501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sigel, R.

R. Sigel, G. Fytas, N. Vainos, S. Pispas, and N. Hadjichristidis, Science 297, 67 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.-B.

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tai, C.-Y.

Takada, K.

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vainos, N.

R. Sigel, G. Fytas, N. Vainos, S. Pispas, and N. Hadjichristidis, Science 297, 67 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

D. K. Yang and S. T. Wu, Fundamental of Liquid Crystal Devices (Wiley, 2006).

Wu, S.-T.

S.-T. Wu, E. Ramos, and U. Finkenzeller, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 78 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S.-T. Wu, Phys. Rev. A 33, 1270 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. K.

D. K. Yang and S. T. Wu, Fundamental of Liquid Crystal Devices (Wiley, 2006).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. C. Bowley and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Hoischen, S. A. Benning, and H.-S. Kitzerow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S.-T. Wu, E. Ramos, and U. Finkenzeller, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 78 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S.-T. Wu, Phys. Rev. A 33, 1270 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

A. I. Pesci, M. A. Porter, and R. E. Goldstein, Phys. Rev. E 68, 056305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

N. Le Grand-Piteira, A. Daerr, and L. Limat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 252503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Dombrowski, B. Lewellyn, A. I. Pesci, J. M. Restrepo, J. O. Kessler, and R. E. Goldstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 184501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, Science 272, 85 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Sigel, G. Fytas, N. Vainos, S. Pispas, and N. Hadjichristidis, Science 297, 67 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D. K. Yang and S. T. Wu, Fundamental of Liquid Crystal Devices (Wiley, 2006).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the experimental setup. A frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire laser is focused on the sample and performs the writing along the y axis, where the half-wave plate (HWP) is used to control the polarization of input laser. (b) Illustration for the directions of laser polarization, laser scanning, and the orientation of LCs.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical microscopic images of the patterns formed in a LC-monomer mixture taken with the direction of analyzer (c)–(f) parallel and (g)–(j) perpendicular to the polarizer. The scan speeds for TP laser lithography are (c),(g) 0.1, (d),(h) 0.5, (e),(i) 1, and (f),(j) 2mm/s, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulation results for the concentrations of (a)–(d) monomer, (e)–(h) polymer, and (i)–(l) LC molecules are plotted in the columns respectively for laser scan parameters f=0.01, 2, 3, and 15 (from the top row to the bottom). Other parameters used are |u|=25, D0=0.1, K0=1, α=0.7, and A0=1, respectively.

Equations (2)

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ϕmt=[(D(x,y,t))F(x,y,t)+I(1ϕm2)]ϕm,
ϕpt=(D(x,y,t)ϕp)+uϕp+F(x,y,t)ϕm,

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