Abstract

Quantum cascade laser (QCL) is a very attractive seed source for a multikilowatt pulsed CO2 lasers applied for driving extreme ultraviolet emitting plasmas. In this Letter, we investigate output beam properties of a QCL designed to address P18 and P20 lines of 10.6 micron band of CO2 molecule. In particular, output beam quality and stability are investigated for the first time. A well-defined linear polarization and a single-mode operation enabled a use of phase retrieval method for full description of QCL output beam. A direct, multi-image numerical phase retrieval technique was developed and successfully applied to the measured intensity patterns of a QCL beam. Very good agreement between the measured and reconstructed beam profiles was observed at distances ranging from QCL aperture to infinity, proving a good understanding of the beam propagation. The results also confirm a high spatial coherence and high stability of the beam parameters, the features expected from an excellent seed source.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
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  3. K. Nowak, T. Ohta, T. Suganuma, T. Yokotsuka, J. Fujimoto, H. Mizoguchi, and A. Endo, Opt. Lett.37, 4765 (2012).
  4. J. Fujimoto, T. Ohta, K. Nowak, T. Suganuma, H. Kameda, M. Moriya, T. Yokoduka, K. Fujitaka, A. Sumitani, and H. Mizoguchi, Proc. SPIE 7969, 7969 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (1)

2011 (1)

J. Fujimoto, T. Ohta, K. Nowak, T. Suganuma, H. Kameda, M. Moriya, T. Yokoduka, K. Fujitaka, A. Sumitani, and H. Mizoguchi, Proc. SPIE 7969, 7969 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

K. Krishnaswami, B. Bernacki, B. Cannon, N. Ho, and N. Anheier, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

L. Grossard, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, B. Colombeau, and C. Froehly, J. Opt. A 4, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1976 (2)

A. Huiser and H. Ferwerda, J. Mod. Opt. 23, 445 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. Huiser, A. Drenth, and H. Ferwerda, Optik 45, 303 (1976).

1972 (1)

R. Gerchberg and W. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1972).

Anheier, N.

K. Krishnaswami, B. Bernacki, B. Cannon, N. Ho, and N. Anheier, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bernacki, B.

K. Krishnaswami, B. Bernacki, B. Cannon, N. Ho, and N. Anheier, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, B.

K. Krishnaswami, B. Bernacki, B. Cannon, N. Ho, and N. Anheier, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Colombeau, B.

L. Grossard, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, B. Colombeau, and C. Froehly, J. Opt. A 4, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R.

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Desfarges-Berthelemot, A.

L. Grossard, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, B. Colombeau, and C. Froehly, J. Opt. A 4, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Drenth, A.

A. Huiser, A. Drenth, and H. Ferwerda, Optik 45, 303 (1976).

Endo, A.

K. Nowak, T. Ohta, T. Suganuma, T. Yokotsuka, J. Fujimoto, H. Mizoguchi, and A. Endo, Opt. Lett.37, 4765 (2012).

K. Nowak, T. Ohta, J. Fujimoto, H. Mizoguchi, and A. Endo, in EUVL Workshop, UCD Dublin, Ireland, (EUV Litho, 2011) 8 November 2011.

Ferwerda, H.

A. Huiser, A. Drenth, and H. Ferwerda, Optik 45, 303 (1976).

A. Huiser and H. Ferwerda, J. Mod. Opt. 23, 445 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Fienup, J.

Froehly, C.

L. Grossard, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, B. Colombeau, and C. Froehly, J. Opt. A 4, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J.

K. Nowak, T. Ohta, T. Suganuma, T. Yokotsuka, J. Fujimoto, H. Mizoguchi, and A. Endo, Opt. Lett.37, 4765 (2012).

J. Fujimoto, T. Ohta, K. Nowak, T. Suganuma, H. Kameda, M. Moriya, T. Yokoduka, K. Fujitaka, A. Sumitani, and H. Mizoguchi, Proc. SPIE 7969, 7969 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Nowak, T. Ohta, J. Fujimoto, H. Mizoguchi, and A. Endo, in EUVL Workshop, UCD Dublin, Ireland, (EUV Litho, 2011) 8 November 2011.

Fujitaka, K.

J. Fujimoto, T. Ohta, K. Nowak, T. Suganuma, H. Kameda, M. Moriya, T. Yokoduka, K. Fujitaka, A. Sumitani, and H. Mizoguchi, Proc. SPIE 7969, 7969 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gerchberg, R.

R. Gerchberg and W. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1972).

Gmachl, C.

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grossard, L.

L. Grossard, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, B. Colombeau, and C. Froehly, J. Opt. A 4, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ho, N.

K. Krishnaswami, B. Bernacki, B. Cannon, N. Ho, and N. Anheier, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huiser, A.

A. Huiser, A. Drenth, and H. Ferwerda, Optik 45, 303 (1976).

A. Huiser and H. Ferwerda, J. Mod. Opt. 23, 445 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kameda, H.

J. Fujimoto, T. Ohta, K. Nowak, T. Suganuma, H. Kameda, M. Moriya, T. Yokoduka, K. Fujitaka, A. Sumitani, and H. Mizoguchi, Proc. SPIE 7969, 7969 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A.

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krishnaswami, K.

K. Krishnaswami, B. Bernacki, B. Cannon, N. Ho, and N. Anheier, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lewicki, R.

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McManus, B.

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mizoguchi, H.

K. Nowak, T. Ohta, T. Suganuma, T. Yokotsuka, J. Fujimoto, H. Mizoguchi, and A. Endo, Opt. Lett.37, 4765 (2012).

J. Fujimoto, T. Ohta, K. Nowak, T. Suganuma, H. Kameda, M. Moriya, T. Yokoduka, K. Fujitaka, A. Sumitani, and H. Mizoguchi, Proc. SPIE 7969, 7969 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Nowak, T. Ohta, J. Fujimoto, H. Mizoguchi, and A. Endo, in EUVL Workshop, UCD Dublin, Ireland, (EUV Litho, 2011) 8 November 2011.

Moriya, M.

J. Fujimoto, T. Ohta, K. Nowak, T. Suganuma, H. Kameda, M. Moriya, T. Yokoduka, K. Fujitaka, A. Sumitani, and H. Mizoguchi, Proc. SPIE 7969, 7969 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nowak, K.

K. Nowak, T. Ohta, T. Suganuma, T. Yokotsuka, J. Fujimoto, H. Mizoguchi, and A. Endo, Opt. Lett.37, 4765 (2012).

J. Fujimoto, T. Ohta, K. Nowak, T. Suganuma, H. Kameda, M. Moriya, T. Yokoduka, K. Fujitaka, A. Sumitani, and H. Mizoguchi, Proc. SPIE 7969, 7969 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Nowak, T. Ohta, J. Fujimoto, H. Mizoguchi, and A. Endo, in EUVL Workshop, UCD Dublin, Ireland, (EUV Litho, 2011) 8 November 2011.

Ohta, T.

K. Nowak, T. Ohta, T. Suganuma, T. Yokotsuka, J. Fujimoto, H. Mizoguchi, and A. Endo, Opt. Lett.37, 4765 (2012).

J. Fujimoto, T. Ohta, K. Nowak, T. Suganuma, H. Kameda, M. Moriya, T. Yokoduka, K. Fujitaka, A. Sumitani, and H. Mizoguchi, Proc. SPIE 7969, 7969 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Nowak, T. Ohta, J. Fujimoto, H. Mizoguchi, and A. Endo, in EUVL Workshop, UCD Dublin, Ireland, (EUV Litho, 2011) 8 November 2011.

Pusharsky, M.

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Saxton, W.

R. Gerchberg and W. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1972).

Suganuma, T.

K. Nowak, T. Ohta, T. Suganuma, T. Yokotsuka, J. Fujimoto, H. Mizoguchi, and A. Endo, Opt. Lett.37, 4765 (2012).

J. Fujimoto, T. Ohta, K. Nowak, T. Suganuma, H. Kameda, M. Moriya, T. Yokoduka, K. Fujitaka, A. Sumitani, and H. Mizoguchi, Proc. SPIE 7969, 7969 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sumitani, A.

J. Fujimoto, T. Ohta, K. Nowak, T. Suganuma, H. Kameda, M. Moriya, T. Yokoduka, K. Fujitaka, A. Sumitani, and H. Mizoguchi, Proc. SPIE 7969, 7969 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F.

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wysocki, G.

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yokoduka, T.

J. Fujimoto, T. Ohta, K. Nowak, T. Suganuma, H. Kameda, M. Moriya, T. Yokoduka, K. Fujitaka, A. Sumitani, and H. Mizoguchi, Proc. SPIE 7969, 7969 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yokotsuka, T.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Krishnaswami, B. Bernacki, B. Cannon, N. Ho, and N. Anheier, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. Huiser and H. Ferwerda, J. Mod. Opt. 23, 445 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

L. Grossard, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, B. Colombeau, and C. Froehly, J. Opt. A 4, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optik (2)

A. Huiser, A. Drenth, and H. Ferwerda, Optik 45, 303 (1976).

R. Gerchberg and W. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1972).

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Fujimoto, T. Ohta, K. Nowak, T. Suganuma, H. Kameda, M. Moriya, T. Yokoduka, K. Fujitaka, A. Sumitani, and H. Mizoguchi, Proc. SPIE 7969, 7969 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

K. Nowak, T. Ohta, J. Fujimoto, H. Mizoguchi, and A. Endo, in EUVL Workshop, UCD Dublin, Ireland, (EUV Litho, 2011) 8 November 2011.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

QCL beam profiles measured at locations “1” to “23” (distance from module aperture indicated in each image). “Far-field” pattern “24” was obtained with f=0.492m lens placed 54 mm from aperture. Image size 12.4×12.4mm. 100 kHz pulse frequency and 200 ns duration.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Phase retrieval results at location “5,” measured intensity (left) and phase (right). Phase 02π represented as levels of gray. Image size 12.4×12.4mm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Intensity and phase patterns at QCL aperture obtained by numerical back-propagation of the complex amplitude reconstructed at location “5.” Phase 02π represented as levels of gray. Beam tilt removed. Image size 12.4×12.4mm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of actual intensity profiles and those calculated by numerical propagation (Rec) of the complex amplitude reconstructed at location “5.”

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