Abstract

Dual-comb spectroscopy is extended to the visible spectral range with two short-pulse frequency-doubled free-running ytterbium-doped fiber lasers. When the spectrum is shifted to other domains by nonlinear frequency conversion, tracking the relative fluctuations of the femtosecond oscillators at their fundamental wavelength automatically produces the correction signal needed for the recording of distortion-free spectra. The dense rovibronic spectrum of iodine around 19,240cm1 is recorded within 12 ms at Doppler-limited resolution.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. W. Hänsch, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1297 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy” arXiv:1201.4177 (2012).
  4. B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Bernhardt, E. Sorokin, P. Jacquet, R. Thon, T. Becker, I. T. Sorokina, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 100, 3 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. D. Deschênes, P. Giaccarri, and J. Genest, Opt. Express 18, 23358 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Keilmann, C. Gohle, and R. Holzwarth, Opt. Lett. 29, 1542 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. R. Griffiths and J. A. de Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Wiley-Interscience, 2007).
  10. G. Guelachvili, “Distortions in Fourier spectra and diagnosis” in Spectrometric Techniques 2, G. Vanasse, ed. (Academic, 1981), pp. 1–62.
  11. S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d’Absorption de la Molecule d’Iode, 14800–20000 cm−1 (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique1978).
  12. H. Salami and A. J. Ross, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 233, 157(2005).
    [CrossRef]

2011

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Bernhardt, E. Sorokin, P. Jacquet, R. Thon, T. Becker, I. T. Sorokina, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 100, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Deschênes, P. Giaccarri, and J. Genest, Opt. Express 18, 23358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

T. W. Hänsch, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Salami and A. J. Ross, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 233, 157(2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Baumann, E.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Becker, T.

B. Bernhardt, E. Sorokin, P. Jacquet, R. Thon, T. Becker, I. T. Sorokina, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 100, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bernhardt, B.

B. Bernhardt, E. Sorokin, P. Jacquet, R. Thon, T. Becker, I. T. Sorokina, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 100, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Coddington, I.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Haseth, J. A.

P. R. Griffiths and J. A. de Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Wiley-Interscience, 2007).

Deschênes, J. D.

Genest, J.

Gerstenkorn, S.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d’Absorption de la Molecule d’Iode, 14800–20000 cm−1 (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique1978).

Giaccarri, P.

Giorgetta, F. R.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gohle, C.

Griffiths, P. R.

P. R. Griffiths and J. A. de Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Wiley-Interscience, 2007).

Guelachvili, G.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy” arXiv:1201.4177 (2012).

G. Guelachvili, “Distortions in Fourier spectra and diagnosis” in Spectrometric Techniques 2, G. Vanasse, ed. (Academic, 1981), pp. 1–62.

Hänsch, T. W.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Bernhardt, E. Sorokin, P. Jacquet, R. Thon, T. Becker, I. T. Sorokina, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 100, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hänsch, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy” arXiv:1201.4177 (2012).

Holzwarth, R.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Keilmann, C. Gohle, and R. Holzwarth, Opt. Lett. 29, 1542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ideguchi, T.

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy” arXiv:1201.4177 (2012).

Jacquet, P.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Bernhardt, E. Sorokin, P. Jacquet, R. Thon, T. Becker, I. T. Sorokina, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 100, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jacquey, M.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Keilmann, F.

Kobayashi, Y.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luc, P.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d’Absorption de la Molecule d’Iode, 14800–20000 cm−1 (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique1978).

Newbury, N. R.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ozawa, A.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Picqué, N.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Bernhardt, E. Sorokin, P. Jacquet, R. Thon, T. Becker, I. T. Sorokina, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 100, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy” arXiv:1201.4177 (2012).

Poisson, A.

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy” arXiv:1201.4177 (2012).

Ross, A. J.

H. Salami and A. J. Ross, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 233, 157(2005).
[CrossRef]

Salami, H.

H. Salami and A. J. Ross, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 233, 157(2005).
[CrossRef]

Sorokin, E.

B. Bernhardt, E. Sorokin, P. Jacquet, R. Thon, T. Becker, I. T. Sorokina, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 100, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sorokina, I. T.

B. Bernhardt, E. Sorokin, P. Jacquet, R. Thon, T. Becker, I. T. Sorokina, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 100, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Swann, W. C.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thon, R.

B. Bernhardt, E. Sorokin, P. Jacquet, R. Thon, T. Becker, I. T. Sorokina, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 100, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zolot, A. M.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

B. Bernhardt, E. Sorokin, P. Jacquet, R. Thon, T. Becker, I. T. Sorokina, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 100, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

H. Salami and A. J. Ross, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 233, 157(2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

T. W. Hänsch, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy” arXiv:1201.4177 (2012).

P. R. Griffiths and J. A. de Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Wiley-Interscience, 2007).

G. Guelachvili, “Distortions in Fourier spectra and diagnosis” in Spectrometric Techniques 2, G. Vanasse, ed. (Academic, 1981), pp. 1–62.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d’Absorption de la Molecule d’Iode, 14800–20000 cm−1 (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique1978).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup. Two free-running fs Yb-doped fiber lasers with slightly different repetition frequencies are frequency doubled with second-harmonic-generation (SHG) crystals. The green beams are combined and probe the iodine sample. Their time-domain interference signal is recorded with a fast photodetector (PD) and digitized with the adaptive clock, described in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Adaptive-clock generation scheme. Each fs oscillator beats with a cw free-running laser with a frequency fcw in a beat detection unit (BDU) to isolate a single mode of each fs laser with a frequency of f1 and f2, respectively. The two beating signals are electronically mixed in order to produce an electric signal f1f2 reporting the relative fluctuations between the two modes. This filtered and frequency-multiplied signal serves as the external clock to the digitizer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Iodine absorption spectra at a resolution of 0.02cm1 with two different degrees of zoom. For each inset: (upper) dual-comb spectrum with free-running lasers and sampled at the constant clock rate of the digitizer, (middle) dual-comb spectrum with free-running lasers and with the adaptive clock, (lower) reproduced from the atlas of [12]. The dual-comb spectra are both measured within 12 ms in identical experimental conditions but the clock for digitization. The spectrum of [12] is measured with a 50 cm long I2 cell; therefore the lines in our adaptive spectrum are more intense.

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