Abstract

The spectra of Er3+:CaGdAlO4 and Pr3+/Er3+:CaGdAlO4 crystals were measured under the same conditions. With the presence of Pr3+ ions, the intensities of the green, red upconversion and near-infrared emissions are dramatically reduced to 1/20, 1/150, and 1/8.5 of those for Er3+:CaGdAlO4. Furthermore, the lifetimes of I11/24 upper and I13/24 lower laser levels fall from 450 and 982 μs to 84.8 and 74.3 μs. It is obvious that the self-saturation for Er3+ 2.7 μm laser is effectively suppressed. The energy transfer efficiencies and coefficients of Er3+Pr3+ are also calculated. These results indicate that Pr3+ codoping is beneficial in achieving 2.7 μm laser in Pr3+/Er3+:CaGdAlO4 crystal.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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C. F. Woensdregt, H. W. M. Janssen, A. Gloubokov, and A. Pajaczkowska, J. Cryst. Growth 171, 392 (1997).
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Bernier, M.

Boudeile, J.

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M. M. Broer, D. L. Huber, W. M. Yen, and W. K. Zwicker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 394 (1982).
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Caron, N.

Chen, B.

Y. Zhang, B. Chen, H. Zhong, J. Sun, L. Cheng, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Tian, W. Lu, J. Wan, T. Yu, L. Huang, H. Yu, and H. Lin, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94, 1766 (2011).
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Chen, N.

Cheng, L.

Y. Zhang, B. Chen, H. Zhong, J. Sun, L. Cheng, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Tian, W. Lu, J. Wan, T. Yu, L. Huang, H. Yu, and H. Lin, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94, 1766 (2011).
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D. Li, X. Xu, Y. Cheng, S. Cheng, D. Zhou, F. Wu, C. Xia, J. Xu, and J. Zhang, J. Cryst. Growth 312, 2117 (2010).
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D. Li, X. Xu, Y. Cheng, S. Cheng, D. Zhou, F. Wu, C. Xia, J. Xu, and J. Zhang, J. Cryst. Growth 312, 2117 (2010).
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Druon, F.

Dubinskii, M.

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V. Lupei and S. Georgescu, Opt. Eng. 35, 1265 (1996).
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C. F. Woensdregt, H. W. M. Janssen, A. Gloubokov, and A. Pajaczkowska, J. Cryst. Growth 171, 392 (1997).
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A. Godard, C. R. Phys. 8, 1100 (2007).
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Goldner, P.

Guo, Y.

Han, T. P. J.

J. R. Wells, T. P. J. Han, M. Yamaga, N. Kodama, and H. G. Gallagher, J. Lumin. 87, 1093 (2000).
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Hanna, M.

Hao, Z.

J. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Hao, X. Zhang, J. Zhao, and Y. Luo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121905 (2012).
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Haussuhl, E.

D. Errandonea, R. S. Kumar, J. Ruiz-Fuertes, A. Segura, and E. Haussuhl, Phys. Rev. B 83, 144104 (2011).
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Hu, L.

Huang, L.

Y. Zhang, B. Chen, H. Zhong, J. Sun, L. Cheng, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Tian, W. Lu, J. Wan, T. Yu, L. Huang, H. Yu, and H. Lin, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94, 1766 (2011).
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X. Meng, Z. Lin, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, and G. Wang, CrysEngComm 13, 4069 (2011).
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Z. Zhu, H. Zeng, J. Li, Z. You, Y. Wang, Z. Huang, and C. Tu, CrysEngComm 14, 7423 (2012).
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Huber, D. L.

M. M. Broer, D. L. Huber, W. M. Yen, and W. K. Zwicker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 394 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, H. W. M.

C. F. Woensdregt, H. W. M. Janssen, A. Gloubokov, and A. Pajaczkowska, J. Cryst. Growth 171, 392 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kanskar, M.

Kedlaya, D.

Kodama, N.

J. R. Wells, T. P. J. Han, M. Yamaga, N. Kodama, and H. G. Gallagher, J. Lumin. 87, 1093 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Vasylechko, N. Kodama, A. Matkovskii, and Y. Zhydachevskii, J. Alloys Compd. 300, 475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, R. S.

D. Errandonea, R. S. Kumar, J. Ruiz-Fuertes, A. Segura, and E. Haussuhl, Phys. Rev. B 83, 144104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

D. Li, X. Xu, Y. Cheng, S. Cheng, D. Zhou, F. Wu, C. Xia, J. Xu, and J. Zhang, J. Cryst. Growth 312, 2117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Z. Zhu, H. Zeng, J. Li, Z. You, Y. Wang, Z. Huang, and C. Tu, CrysEngComm 14, 7423 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Hao, X. Zhang, J. Zhao, and Y. Luo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Zhu, E. Ma, and C. Tu, J. Phys. D 42, 215406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Y. Zhang, B. Chen, H. Zhong, J. Sun, L. Cheng, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Tian, W. Lu, J. Wan, T. Yu, L. Huang, H. Yu, and H. Lin, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94, 1766 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

Y. Zhang, B. Chen, H. Zhong, J. Sun, L. Cheng, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Tian, W. Lu, J. Wan, T. Yu, L. Huang, H. Yu, and H. Lin, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94, 1766 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin, D. Chen, Y. Yu, A. Yang, and Y. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 1815 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z.

X. Meng, Z. Lin, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, and G. Wang, CrysEngComm 13, 4069 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, W.

Y. Zhang, B. Chen, H. Zhong, J. Sun, L. Cheng, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Tian, W. Lu, J. Wan, T. Yu, L. Huang, H. Yu, and H. Lin, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94, 1766 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lubatschowski, H.

Luo, Y.

J. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Hao, X. Zhang, J. Zhao, and Y. Luo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lupei, V.

V. Lupei and S. Georgescu, Opt. Eng. 35, 1265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Luthy, W.

Ma, E.

Y. Wang, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Zhu, E. Ma, and C. Tu, J. Phys. D 42, 215406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matkovskii, A.

L. Vasylechko, N. Kodama, A. Matkovskii, and Y. Zhydachevskii, J. Alloys Compd. 300, 475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meng, X.

X. Meng, Z. Lin, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, and G. Wang, CrysEngComm 13, 4069 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pajaczkowska, A.

C. F. Woensdregt, H. W. M. Janssen, A. Gloubokov, and A. Pajaczkowska, J. Cryst. Growth 171, 392 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petit, J.

Pollnau, M.

Ruiz-Fuertes, J.

D. Errandonea, R. S. Kumar, J. Ruiz-Fuertes, A. Segura, and E. Haussuhl, Phys. Rev. B 83, 144104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sanamyan, T.

Segura, A.

D. Errandonea, R. S. Kumar, J. Ruiz-Fuertes, A. Segura, and E. Haussuhl, Phys. Rev. B 83, 144104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spring, R.

Sun, J.

Y. Zhang, B. Chen, H. Zhong, J. Sun, L. Cheng, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Tian, W. Lu, J. Wan, T. Yu, L. Huang, H. Yu, and H. Lin, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94, 1766 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y.

Y. Guo, Y. Tian, L. Zhang, L. Hu, N. Chen, and J. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 37, 3387 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, B. Chen, H. Zhong, J. Sun, L. Cheng, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Tian, W. Lu, J. Wan, T. Yu, L. Huang, H. Yu, and H. Lin, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94, 1766 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tu, C.

Z. Zhu, H. Zeng, J. Li, Z. You, Y. Wang, Z. Huang, and C. Tu, CrysEngComm 14, 7423 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Zhu, E. Ma, and C. Tu, J. Phys. D 42, 215406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vallée, R.

Vasylechko, L.

L. Vasylechko, N. Kodama, A. Matkovskii, and Y. Zhydachevskii, J. Alloys Compd. 300, 475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Viana, B.

Wan, J.

Y. Zhang, B. Chen, H. Zhong, J. Sun, L. Cheng, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Tian, W. Lu, J. Wan, T. Yu, L. Huang, H. Yu, and H. Lin, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94, 1766 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

X. Meng, Z. Lin, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, and G. Wang, CrysEngComm 13, 4069 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Z. Zhu, H. Zeng, J. Li, Z. You, Y. Wang, Z. Huang, and C. Tu, CrysEngComm 14, 7423 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin, D. Chen, Y. Yu, A. Yang, and Y. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 1815 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Zhu, E. Ma, and C. Tu, J. Phys. D 42, 215406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

Welling, H.

Wells, J. R.

J. R. Wells, T. P. J. Han, M. Yamaga, N. Kodama, and H. G. Gallagher, J. Lumin. 87, 1093 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Will, G. F.

Wittwer, S.

Woensdregt, C. F.

C. F. Woensdregt, H. W. M. Janssen, A. Gloubokov, and A. Pajaczkowska, J. Cryst. Growth 171, 392 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

D. Li, X. Xu, Y. Cheng, S. Cheng, D. Zhou, F. Wu, C. Xia, J. Xu, and J. Zhang, J. Cryst. Growth 312, 2117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xia, C.

D. Li, X. Xu, Y. Cheng, S. Cheng, D. Zhou, F. Wu, C. Xia, J. Xu, and J. Zhang, J. Cryst. Growth 312, 2117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Y.

Xu, J.

D. Li, X. Xu, Y. Cheng, S. Cheng, D. Zhou, F. Wu, C. Xia, J. Xu, and J. Zhang, J. Cryst. Growth 312, 2117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

D. Li, X. Xu, Y. Cheng, S. Cheng, D. Zhou, F. Wu, C. Xia, J. Xu, and J. Zhang, J. Cryst. Growth 312, 2117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamaga, M.

J. R. Wells, T. P. J. Han, M. Yamaga, N. Kodama, and H. G. Gallagher, J. Lumin. 87, 1093 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, A.

Yen, W. M.

M. M. Broer, D. L. Huber, W. M. Yen, and W. K. Zwicker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 394 (1982).
[CrossRef]

You, Z.

Z. Zhu, H. Zeng, J. Li, Z. You, Y. Wang, Z. Huang, and C. Tu, CrysEngComm 14, 7423 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Zhu, E. Ma, and C. Tu, J. Phys. D 42, 215406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

Y. Zhang, B. Chen, H. Zhong, J. Sun, L. Cheng, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Tian, W. Lu, J. Wan, T. Yu, L. Huang, H. Yu, and H. Lin, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94, 1766 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T.

Y. Zhang, B. Chen, H. Zhong, J. Sun, L. Cheng, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Tian, W. Lu, J. Wan, T. Yu, L. Huang, H. Yu, and H. Lin, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94, 1766 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.

Zaouter, Y.

Zeng, H.

Z. Zhu, H. Zeng, J. Li, Z. You, Y. Wang, Z. Huang, and C. Tu, CrysEngComm 14, 7423 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Hao, X. Zhang, J. Zhao, and Y. Luo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guo, Y. Tian, L. Zhang, L. Hu, N. Chen, and J. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 37, 3387 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, B. Chen, H. Zhong, J. Sun, L. Cheng, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Tian, W. Lu, J. Wan, T. Yu, L. Huang, H. Yu, and H. Lin, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94, 1766 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, X. Xu, Y. Cheng, S. Cheng, D. Zhou, F. Wu, C. Xia, J. Xu, and J. Zhang, J. Cryst. Growth 312, 2117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Y. Guo, Y. Tian, L. Zhang, L. Hu, N. Chen, and J. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 37, 3387 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, Z. Lin, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, and G. Wang, CrysEngComm 13, 4069 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

J. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Hao, X. Zhang, J. Zhao, and Y. Luo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, B. Chen, H. Zhong, J. Sun, L. Cheng, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Tian, W. Lu, J. Wan, T. Yu, L. Huang, H. Yu, and H. Lin, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94, 1766 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

J. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Hao, X. Zhang, J. Zhao, and Y. Luo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, H.

Y. Zhang, B. Chen, H. Zhong, J. Sun, L. Cheng, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Tian, W. Lu, J. Wan, T. Yu, L. Huang, H. Yu, and H. Lin, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94, 1766 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, D.

D. Li, X. Xu, Y. Cheng, S. Cheng, D. Zhou, F. Wu, C. Xia, J. Xu, and J. Zhang, J. Cryst. Growth 312, 2117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

Z. Zhu, H. Zeng, J. Li, Z. You, Y. Wang, Z. Huang, and C. Tu, CrysEngComm 14, 7423 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Zhu, E. Ma, and C. Tu, J. Phys. D 42, 215406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhydachevskii, Y.

L. Vasylechko, N. Kodama, A. Matkovskii, and Y. Zhydachevskii, J. Alloys Compd. 300, 475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ziolek, C.

Zwicker, W. K.

M. M. Broer, D. L. Huber, W. M. Yen, and W. K. Zwicker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 394 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Hao, X. Zhang, J. Zhao, and Y. Luo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Phys.

A. Godard, C. R. Phys. 8, 1100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

CrysEngComm

Z. Zhu, H. Zeng, J. Li, Z. You, Y. Wang, Z. Huang, and C. Tu, CrysEngComm 14, 7423 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, Z. Lin, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, and G. Wang, CrysEngComm 13, 4069 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd.

L. Vasylechko, N. Kodama, A. Matkovskii, and Y. Zhydachevskii, J. Alloys Compd. 300, 475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

Y. Zhang, B. Chen, H. Zhong, J. Sun, L. Cheng, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Tian, W. Lu, J. Wan, T. Yu, L. Huang, H. Yu, and H. Lin, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94, 1766 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

C. F. Woensdregt, H. W. M. Janssen, A. Gloubokov, and A. Pajaczkowska, J. Cryst. Growth 171, 392 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, X. Xu, Y. Cheng, S. Cheng, D. Zhou, F. Wu, C. Xia, J. Xu, and J. Zhang, J. Cryst. Growth 312, 2117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

J. R. Wells, T. P. J. Han, M. Yamaga, N. Kodama, and H. G. Gallagher, J. Lumin. 87, 1093 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. D

Y. Wang, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Zhu, E. Ma, and C. Tu, J. Phys. D 42, 215406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

V. Lupei and S. Georgescu, Opt. Eng. 35, 1265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

D. Errandonea, R. S. Kumar, J. Ruiz-Fuertes, A. Segura, and E. Haussuhl, Phys. Rev. B 83, 144104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. M. Broer, D. L. Huber, W. M. Yen, and W. K. Zwicker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 394 (1982).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(left) One as-grown crystal Er : CaGdAlO 4 and (right) absorption spectra of Er 3 + : CaGdAlO 4 and Pr 3 + / Er 3 + : CaGdAlO 4 .

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Mid-IR, (b) NIR, and (c) green and red upconversion fluorescence of Er 3 + : CaGdAlO 4 (solid line) and Pr 3 + / Er 3 + : CaGdAlO 4 (dotted line). (d) Energy level diagram of Er 3 + and Pr 3 + ions.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Decay curves of (a) mid-IR and (b) NIR emission of Er 3 + : CaGdAlO 4 (solid line) and Pr 3 + / Er 3 + : CaGdAlO 4 (dotted line).

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Intensities and Lifetimes of Er 3 + Energy Level Transitions in Er 3 + : CaGdAlO 4 and Pr 3 + / Er 3 + : CaGdAlO 4 Crystals as Well as Parameters of Er 3 + Pr 3 + Energy Transfer in Pr 3 + / Er 3 + : CaGdAlO 4 Crystal

Equations (4)

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I ( t ) = A + B 1 exp ( t / τ 1 ) .
I ( t ) = A + B 1 exp ( t / τ 1 ) + B 2 exp ( t / τ 2 ) + + B n exp ( t / τ n ) .
τ = B 1 τ 1 2 + B 2 τ 2 2 + + B n τ n 2 B 1 τ 1 + B 2 τ 2 + + B n τ n .
η τ = 1 τ D A / τ D ,

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