Abstract

We designed, fabricated, and characterized an integrated-optics-based swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system in TriPleX technology. An external 1300 nm swept source is coupled to the chip, which contains waveguide structures for interferometric depth ranging and balanced detection. The complete OCT chip has a footprint of 0.4cm×1.8cm. Light from the chip is focused onto the sample using an aspheric lens; the lateral resolution is 21±1μm. OCT measurements, performed with a moveable mirror, demonstrate a sensitivity of 80dB and imaging up to the maximum depth of 5.09 mm. Corrected for dispersion, the measured OCT axial resolution of 12.7±0.5μm is in good agreement with the bandwidth limited resolution. Finally, we demonstrate cross-sectional OCT imaging of a multilayered tissue phantom over the whole depth range with the integrated-optics-based SS-OCT system.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012

B. I. Akca, V. D. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, F. Sun, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1223 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

2007

2003

2000

D. D. Culemann, A. Knuettel, and E. Voges, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

N. Sugimoto, T. Shintaku, A. Tate, H. Terui, M. Shimokozono, E. Kubota, M. Ishii, and Y. Inoue, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 355 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, and M. Kawachi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 28, 848 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).

A. Kohlhaas, C. Fromchen, and E. Brinkmeyer, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1493 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Akca, B. I.

B. I. Akca, V. D. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, F. Sun, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1223 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. D. Nguyen, B. I. Akca, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, T. G. van Leeuwen, and J. Kalkman, Opt. Lett. 36, 1293 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

G. Yurtsever, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, Proc. SPIE 8091, 80910T (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. S.

Bauters, J. F.

Blumenthal, D. J.

Bowers, J. E.

Brinkmeyer, E.

A. Kohlhaas, C. Fromchen, and E. Brinkmeyer, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1493 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).

Chen, Y.

Choma, M. A.

Culemann, D. D.

D. D. Culemann, A. Knuettel, and E. Voges, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

de Boer, J. F.

de Bruin, D. M.

de Ridder, R. M.

B. I. Akca, V. D. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, F. Sun, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1223 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. D. Nguyen, B. I. Akca, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, T. G. van Leeuwen, and J. Kalkman, Opt. Lett. 36, 1293 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Driessen, A.

B. I. Akca, V. D. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, F. Sun, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1223 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).

Fromchen, C.

A. Kohlhaas, C. Fromchen, and E. Brinkmeyer, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1493 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).

Heck, M. J.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).

Heideman, R. G.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).

Inoue, Y.

N. Sugimoto, T. Shintaku, A. Tate, H. Terui, M. Shimokozono, E. Kubota, M. Ishii, and Y. Inoue, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 355 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, M.

N. Sugimoto, T. Shintaku, A. Tate, H. Terui, M. Shimokozono, E. Kubota, M. Ishii, and Y. Inoue, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 355 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ismail, N.

B. I. Akca, V. D. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, F. Sun, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1223 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. D. Nguyen, N. Ismail, F. Sun, K. Wörhoff, T. G. van Leeuwen, and J. Kalkman, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Izatt, J. A.

Jinguji, K.

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, and M. Kawachi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 28, 848 (1992).
[CrossRef]

John, D.

Kalkman, J.

B. I. Akca, V. D. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, F. Sun, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1223 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. D. Nguyen, B. I. Akca, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, T. G. van Leeuwen, and J. Kalkman, Opt. Lett. 36, 1293 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. D. Nguyen, N. Ismail, F. Sun, K. Wörhoff, T. G. van Leeuwen, and J. Kalkman, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, M.

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, and M. Kawachi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 28, 848 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kerbage, C.

Knuettel, A.

D. D. Culemann, A. Knuettel, and E. Voges, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kohlhaas, A.

A. Kohlhaas, C. Fromchen, and E. Brinkmeyer, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1493 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Komorowska, K.

G. Yurtsever, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, Proc. SPIE 8091, 80910T (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, E.

N. Sugimoto, T. Shintaku, A. Tate, H. Terui, M. Shimokozono, E. Kubota, M. Ishii, and Y. Inoue, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 355 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leinse, A.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).

Nguyen, V. D.

B. I. Akca, V. D. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, F. Sun, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1223 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. D. Nguyen, B. I. Akca, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, T. G. van Leeuwen, and J. Kalkman, Opt. Lett. 36, 1293 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. D. Nguyen, N. Ismail, F. Sun, K. Wörhoff, T. G. van Leeuwen, and J. Kalkman, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

B. I. Akca, V. D. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, F. Sun, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1223 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. D. Nguyen, B. I. Akca, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, T. G. van Leeuwen, and J. Kalkman, Opt. Lett. 36, 1293 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).

Sarunic, M. V.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).

Sengo, G.

B. I. Akca, V. D. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, F. Sun, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1223 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shimokozono, M.

N. Sugimoto, T. Shintaku, A. Tate, H. Terui, M. Shimokozono, E. Kubota, M. Ishii, and Y. Inoue, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 355 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shintaku, T.

N. Sugimoto, T. Shintaku, A. Tate, H. Terui, M. Shimokozono, E. Kubota, M. Ishii, and Y. Inoue, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 355 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).

Sugimoto, N.

N. Sugimoto, T. Shintaku, A. Tate, H. Terui, M. Shimokozono, E. Kubota, M. Ishii, and Y. Inoue, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 355 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, F.

B. I. Akca, V. D. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, F. Sun, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1223 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. D. Nguyen, N. Ismail, F. Sun, K. Wörhoff, T. G. van Leeuwen, and J. Kalkman, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).

Takagi, A.

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, and M. Kawachi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 28, 848 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tate, A.

N. Sugimoto, T. Shintaku, A. Tate, H. Terui, M. Shimokozono, E. Kubota, M. Ishii, and Y. Inoue, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 355 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Terui, H.

N. Sugimoto, T. Shintaku, A. Tate, H. Terui, M. Shimokozono, E. Kubota, M. Ishii, and Y. Inoue, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 355 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tien, M. C.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

B. I. Akca, V. D. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, F. Sun, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1223 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. D. Nguyen, B. I. Akca, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, T. G. van Leeuwen, and J. Kalkman, Opt. Lett. 36, 1293 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. D. Nguyen, N. Ismail, F. Sun, K. Wörhoff, T. G. van Leeuwen, and J. Kalkman, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Voges, E.

D. D. Culemann, A. Knuettel, and E. Voges, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wörhoff, K.

B. I. Akca, V. D. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, F. Sun, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1223 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. D. Nguyen, B. I. Akca, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, T. G. van Leeuwen, and J. Kalkman, Opt. Lett. 36, 1293 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. D. Nguyen, N. Ismail, F. Sun, K. Wörhoff, T. G. van Leeuwen, and J. Kalkman, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

Yurtsever, G.

G. Yurtsever, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, Proc. SPIE 8091, 80910T (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

D. D. Culemann, A. Knuettel, and E. Voges, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Akca, V. D. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, F. Sun, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1223 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, and M. Kawachi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 28, 848 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

N. Sugimoto, T. Shintaku, A. Tate, H. Terui, M. Shimokozono, E. Kubota, M. Ishii, and Y. Inoue, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 355 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

G. Yurtsever, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, Proc. SPIE 8091, 80910T (2011).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the experimental setup used for (a) the integrated-optics-based SS-OCT and (b) the bulk SS-OCT system. SS, swept source; FBG, fiber Bragg grating; FAU, fiber array unit; PC, polarization controller; BPD, balanced photo detector; L, lens; PD, photodiode; and ZD, zero delay.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured OCT signal in depth for a mirror in the sample arm. (a) OCT signal without dispersion correction and (b) OCT signal with dispersion correction. The solid curve indicates the SS-OCT signal drop due to system sensitivity and lens focusing. (c) Measured OCT axial resolution before (filled circles) and after (open circles) dispersion correction. The dashed line indicates the bandwidth limited OCT axial resolution and the vertical dashed dot line indicates the maximum imaging depth (zmax).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

OCT images of the tissue phantom measured with the integrated-optics-based SS-OCT system for three different sample depth locations.

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