Abstract

We show that a multiexponential model for time-resolved fluorescence allows the use of an absorption-perturbation Monte Carlo (MC) approach based on stored photon path histories. This enables the rapid fitting of fluorescence yield, lifetimes, and background tissue absorptions in complex heterogeneous media within a few seconds, without the need for temporal convolutions or MC recalculation of photon path lengths. We validate this method using simulations with both a slab and a heterogeneous model of the mouse head.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011

2010

S. B. Raymond, D. A. Boas, B. J. Bacskai, and A. T. N. Kumar, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

2007

B. Dogdas, D. Stout, A. F. Chatziioannou, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 577 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

2004

D. Y. Churmakov, I. V. Meglinski, and D. A. Greenhalgh, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

2001

1995

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Andersson-Engels, S.

Bacskai, B. J.

Bevilacqua, F.

Boas, D. A.

Boverman, G.

Chatziioannou, A. F.

B. Dogdas, D. Stout, A. F. Chatziioannou, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 577 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Churmakov, D. Y.

D. Y. Churmakov, I. V. Meglinski, and D. A. Greenhalgh, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Culver, J. P.

Dogdas, B.

B. Dogdas, D. Stout, A. F. Chatziioannou, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 577 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, A. K.

Enejder, A. M. K.

Fang, Q.

Greenhalgh, D. A.

D. Y. Churmakov, I. V. Meglinski, and D. A. Greenhalgh, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hayakawa, C. K.

Intes, X.

Jacques, S. L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A. T. N.

Leahy, R. M.

B. Dogdas, D. Stout, A. F. Chatziioannou, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 577 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Liebert, A.

Macdonald, R.

Meglinski, I. V.

D. Y. Churmakov, I. V. Meglinski, and D. A. Greenhalgh, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Niedre, M.

Pifferi, A.

Raymond, S. B.

S. B. Raymond, D. A. Boas, B. J. Bacskai, and A. T. N. Kumar, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. T. N. Kumar, S. B. Raymond, G. Boverman, D. A. Boas, and B. J. Bacskai, Opt. Express 14, 12255 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Skoch, J.

Spanier, J.

Stott, J. J.

Stout, D.

B. Dogdas, D. Stout, A. F. Chatziioannou, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 577 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Swartling, J.

Tromberg, B. J.

Venugopal, V.

Venugopalan, V.

Wabnitz, J.

Wang, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

You, J. S.

Zheng, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zolek, N.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Error in lifetime recovered by fitting the hFMC approach [Eqs. (1),(3)] to the aFMC, for a slab model with a single fluorescent inclusion at the center (see text). The aFMC simulation assumed μax=0.01mm1 and a varying μae between 0.005 and 0.15mm1, and μsx=μse=1mm1. For each {μax,μae} pair, the hFMC approach used the mean values μam=(μax+μae)/2 to fit for τn and μfnxj.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

TRF curves calculated using the hFMC approach (red circles) with the aFMC (solid blue line) and the error, aFMC − hFMC (dash-dotted red line), for the same slab geometry as used in Fig. 1, with {μax,μae}={0.01,0.008}mm1, μsx=μse=1mm1. Also shown is the hFMC calculation without the use of reduced absorption in Eq. (3) (black dotted line) and the corresponding error (dashed black line).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Heterogeneous absorption map of a digitized mouse, with four brain regions assigned fluorophores with distinct lifetimes as indicated. (b) Representative TRF curves predicted by aFMC (solid blue) and hFMC (red dots) for a source S(x) and two detectors D1 and D2 (o) on the surface [E<3% for all detectors (o) shown.]

Equations (3)

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UF(rs,rd,t)=nAn(rs,rd,t)eΓnt,
An(rs,rd,t)=0tdt[d3rWnx,e(rs,rd,r,t)ηn(r)].
An(rs,rd,t)=qnkN(t)j=1Je(μamjΓnv)Lkj[1eμfnxjLkj],

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