Abstract

A unique multicorelike guidance was achieved in a microstructured optical fiber composed of a circular air hole at the center surrounded by a high-index triangular core. Unique spectral evolution of the degeneracy was theoretically investigated using a vectorial finite element method to find a threefold degeneracy in both the fundamental and the first excited modes in the visible range, which evolved to twofold degeneracy as the wavelength increased to IR. Experimental measurements also confirmed evolution of the modal intensity from three spatially isolated patterns confined to individual corners into a supermode combining the three corners.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012

T. Morioka, Y. Awaji, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, D. Richardson, and F. Poletti, IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s31 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

2005

2004

2000

F. Brechet, J. Marcou, D. Pagnoux, and P. Roy, Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

K. Oh, H. S. Seo, J. K. Lee, and U. C. Paek, Opt. Commun. 159, 139 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1989

H. S. Huang and H. C. Chang, Electron. Lett. 25, 55 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1973

R. B. Dyott, C. R. Day, and M. C. Brain, Electron. Lett. 9, 288 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

Awaji, Y.

T. Morioka, Y. Awaji, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, D. Richardson, and F. Poletti, IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s31 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Sakaguchi, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB6.

Brain, M. C.

R. B. Dyott, C. R. Day, and M. C. Brain, Electron. Lett. 9, 288 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Brechet, F.

F. Brechet, J. Marcou, D. Pagnoux, and P. Roy, Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H. C.

H. S. Huang and H. C. Chang, Electron. Lett. 25, 55 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J.

Cheo, P.

Choi, S.

Day, C. R.

R. B. Dyott, C. R. Day, and M. C. Brain, Electron. Lett. 9, 288 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Dyott, R. B.

R. B. Dyott, C. R. Day, and M. C. Brain, Electron. Lett. 9, 288 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ha, W.

Hayashi, T.

T. Hayashi, T. Taru, O. Shimakawa, T. Sasaki, and E. Sasaoka, Opt. Express 19, 16576 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Sakaguchi, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB6.

Huang, H. S.

H. S. Huang and H. C. Chang, Electron. Lett. 25, 55 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Huo, Y.

Jeong, Y.

Jung, Y.

Kanno, A.

J. Sakaguchi, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB6.

Kawanishi, T.

J. Sakaguchi, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB6.

Kim, J.

Kim, J. K.

King, G.

Kobayashi, T.

J. Sakaguchi, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB6.

Kobelke, J.

Koshiba, M.

Lee, J. K.

K. Oh, H. S. Seo, J. K. Lee, and U. C. Paek, Opt. Commun. 159, 139 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. W.

Lee, S.

Marcou, J.

F. Brechet, J. Marcou, D. Pagnoux, and P. Roy, Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

Morioka, T.

T. Morioka, Y. Awaji, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, D. Richardson, and F. Poletti, IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s31 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

Paek, U. C.

K. Oh, H. S. Seo, J. K. Lee, and U. C. Paek, Opt. Commun. 159, 139 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pagnoux, D.

F. Brechet, J. Marcou, D. Pagnoux, and P. Roy, Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peng, G.-D.

Poletti, F.

T. Morioka, Y. Awaji, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, D. Richardson, and F. Poletti, IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s31 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D.

T. Morioka, Y. Awaji, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, D. Richardson, and F. Poletti, IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s31 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roy, P.

F. Brechet, J. Marcou, D. Pagnoux, and P. Roy, Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ryf, R.

T. Morioka, Y. Awaji, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, D. Richardson, and F. Poletti, IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s31 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Saito, K.

Sakaguchi, J.

J. Sakaguchi, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB6.

Sasaki, T.

Sasaki, Y.

Sasaoka, E.

Schuster, K.

Schwuchow, A.

Seo, H. S.

K. Oh, H. S. Seo, J. K. Lee, and U. C. Paek, Opt. Commun. 159, 139 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shimakawa, O.

Takenaga, K.

Taniagawa, S.

Taru, T.

T. Hayashi, T. Taru, O. Shimakawa, T. Sasaki, and E. Sasaoka, Opt. Express 19, 16576 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Sakaguchi, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB6.

Unger, S.

Wada, N.

J. Sakaguchi, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB6.

Wang, Q.

Watanabe, M.

J. Sakaguchi, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB6.

Winzer, P.

T. Morioka, Y. Awaji, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, D. Richardson, and F. Poletti, IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s31 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Electron. Lett.

R. B. Dyott, C. R. Day, and M. C. Brain, Electron. Lett. 9, 288 (1973).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Huang and H. C. Chang, Electron. Lett. 25, 55 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag.

T. Morioka, Y. Awaji, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, D. Richardson, and F. Poletti, IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s31 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Commun.

K. Oh, H. S. Seo, J. K. Lee, and U. C. Paek, Opt. Commun. 159, 139 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Fiber Technol.

F. Brechet, J. Marcou, D. Pagnoux, and P. Roy, Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

J. Sakaguchi, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB6.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of the proposed fiber structure to replace the fiber (left) with three cores at the corner of triangle by a TC-HOF, (right) a triangular core with a central air hole. (b) Structure of TC-HOF and (c) the cross section of a fabricated TC-HOF. The image is taken from an optical microscope with an ×50 objective lens (dair=11μm, a=17μm, relative refractive index difference, Δ=0.5%).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Intensity distribution of the TC-HOF first six eigenmodes (a) at λ=600nm, (b) λ=1635nm. The degeneracy of each eigenmode is indicated by the number in parentheses. Effective refractive index, neff, of the eigenmodes in the TC-HOF, (c) near λ=610nm, and (d) λ=1650nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Confinement loss of the eigenmodes in the IR range. At the cutoff of the first excited mode, Ψ3 is located at λs=1.668μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Time delay between the eigenmodes in TC-HOF.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Experimental setup with a tapered optical fiber as a localized excitation source. (b), (c), (d) Near-field patterns at λ=632.8nm from the fabricated TC-HOF for three different excited location of the corners. (e) Near-field image measured at 1530 nm.

Equations (1)

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ΔτL=ΔneffcλcdΔneffdλ.

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