Abstract

Optofluidic lasers have emerged as a new research field over the past few years. Most frequently they use conventional dye molecules as the gain medium. In this Letter, we demonstrate a laser emission produced by the coupling of the evanescent whispering gallery modes that resonate in a cylindrical microresonator to a newly developed gain medium. This medium is formed by attachment of a 7-nitrobenzo [c] [1,2,5]-oxadiazol-4-yl fluorescent tag to tamoxifen, the most widely used drug in the treatment of breast cancer. The antitumor character of the gain medium paves the way to novel biophotonic applications.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. R. Cummings, J. A. Tice, S. Bauer, W. S. Browner, J. Cuzick, E. Ziv, V. Vogel, J. Shepherd, C. Vachon, R. Smith-Bindman, and K. Kerlikowske, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 101, 384 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. C. Jordan, Br. J. Pharmacol. 110, 507 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Díaz, J. M.-Alonso, T. Gómez, R. Marín, F. Lahoz, and A. Boto, “Derivados del tamoxifeno, procedimiento de obtención y sus aplicaciones,” Patent, Appl. Number ES2498.5(5April2012).
  4. H. Schmidt and A. R. Hawkins, Nat. Photonics 5, 598 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. I. Shopova, H. Zhou, X. Fan, and P. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 221101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Li and D. Psaltis, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 145 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Fan and I. M. White, Nat. Photonics 5, 591 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, Nat. Methods 5, 591 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Sun and X. Fan, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51, 1236 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. J. Moon, Y. T. Chough, and A. Kyungwon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3161 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Heebner, R. Grover, and T. A. Ibrahim, Optical MicroResonators (Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 2008).
  12. F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Zhu, I. H. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zouro, and X. Fan, Analyst 133, 356 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

Y. Sun and X. Fan, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51, 1236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

X. Fan and I. M. White, Nat. Photonics 5, 591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmidt and A. R. Hawkins, Nat. Photonics 5, 598 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. R. Cummings, J. A. Tice, S. Bauer, W. S. Browner, J. Cuzick, E. Ziv, V. Vogel, J. Shepherd, C. Vachon, R. Smith-Bindman, and K. Kerlikowske, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 101, 384 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, Nat. Methods 5, 591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li and D. Psaltis, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 145 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, I. H. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zouro, and X. Fan, Analyst 133, 356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Shopova, H. Zhou, X. Fan, and P. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 221101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. J. Moon, Y. T. Chough, and A. Kyungwon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3161 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

V. C. Jordan, Br. J. Pharmacol. 110, 507 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, Nat. Methods 5, 591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, S.

S. R. Cummings, J. A. Tice, S. Bauer, W. S. Browner, J. Cuzick, E. Ziv, V. Vogel, J. Shepherd, C. Vachon, R. Smith-Bindman, and K. Kerlikowske, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 101, 384 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boto, A.

M. Díaz, J. M.-Alonso, T. Gómez, R. Marín, F. Lahoz, and A. Boto, “Derivados del tamoxifeno, procedimiento de obtención y sus aplicaciones,” Patent, Appl. Number ES2498.5(5April2012).

Braun, D.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Browner, W. S.

S. R. Cummings, J. A. Tice, S. Bauer, W. S. Browner, J. Cuzick, E. Ziv, V. Vogel, J. Shepherd, C. Vachon, R. Smith-Bindman, and K. Kerlikowske, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 101, 384 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chough, Y. T.

H. J. Moon, Y. T. Chough, and A. Kyungwon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3161 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cummings, S. R.

S. R. Cummings, J. A. Tice, S. Bauer, W. S. Browner, J. Cuzick, E. Ziv, V. Vogel, J. Shepherd, C. Vachon, R. Smith-Bindman, and K. Kerlikowske, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 101, 384 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cuzick, J.

S. R. Cummings, J. A. Tice, S. Bauer, W. S. Browner, J. Cuzick, E. Ziv, V. Vogel, J. Shepherd, C. Vachon, R. Smith-Bindman, and K. Kerlikowske, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 101, 384 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Díaz, M.

M. Díaz, J. M.-Alonso, T. Gómez, R. Marín, F. Lahoz, and A. Boto, “Derivados del tamoxifeno, procedimiento de obtención y sus aplicaciones,” Patent, Appl. Number ES2498.5(5April2012).

Fan, X.

Y. Sun and X. Fan, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51, 1236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan and I. M. White, Nat. Photonics 5, 591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, I. H. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zouro, and X. Fan, Analyst 133, 356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Shopova, H. Zhou, X. Fan, and P. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 221101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Flagan, R. C.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, S. E.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gómez, T.

M. Díaz, J. M.-Alonso, T. Gómez, R. Marín, F. Lahoz, and A. Boto, “Derivados del tamoxifeno, procedimiento de obtención y sus aplicaciones,” Patent, Appl. Number ES2498.5(5April2012).

Grover, R.

J. Heebner, R. Grover, and T. A. Ibrahim, Optical MicroResonators (Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 2008).

Hawkins, A. R.

H. Schmidt and A. R. Hawkins, Nat. Photonics 5, 598 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Heebner, J.

J. Heebner, R. Grover, and T. A. Ibrahim, Optical MicroResonators (Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 2008).

Ibrahim, T. A.

J. Heebner, R. Grover, and T. A. Ibrahim, Optical MicroResonators (Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 2008).

Jordan, V. C.

V. C. Jordan, Br. J. Pharmacol. 110, 507 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kerlikowske, K.

S. R. Cummings, J. A. Tice, S. Bauer, W. S. Browner, J. Cuzick, E. Ziv, V. Vogel, J. Shepherd, C. Vachon, R. Smith-Bindman, and K. Kerlikowske, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 101, 384 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khoshsima, M.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, R. P.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kyungwon, A.

H. J. Moon, Y. T. Chough, and A. Kyungwon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3161 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lahoz, F.

M. Díaz, J. M.-Alonso, T. Gómez, R. Marín, F. Lahoz, and A. Boto, “Derivados del tamoxifeno, procedimiento de obtención y sus aplicaciones,” Patent, Appl. Number ES2498.5(5April2012).

Li, Z.

Z. Li and D. Psaltis, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 145 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Libchaber, A.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M.-Alonso, J.

M. Díaz, J. M.-Alonso, T. Gómez, R. Marín, F. Lahoz, and A. Boto, “Derivados del tamoxifeno, procedimiento de obtención y sus aplicaciones,” Patent, Appl. Number ES2498.5(5April2012).

Marín, R.

M. Díaz, J. M.-Alonso, T. Gómez, R. Marín, F. Lahoz, and A. Boto, “Derivados del tamoxifeno, procedimiento de obtención y sus aplicaciones,” Patent, Appl. Number ES2498.5(5April2012).

Moon, H. J.

H. J. Moon, Y. T. Chough, and A. Kyungwon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3161 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

Z. Li and D. Psaltis, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 145 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

H. Schmidt and A. R. Hawkins, Nat. Photonics 5, 598 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, J.

S. R. Cummings, J. A. Tice, S. Bauer, W. S. Browner, J. Cuzick, E. Ziv, V. Vogel, J. Shepherd, C. Vachon, R. Smith-Bindman, and K. Kerlikowske, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 101, 384 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shopova, S. I.

S. I. Shopova, H. Zhou, X. Fan, and P. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 221101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith-Bindman, R.

S. R. Cummings, J. A. Tice, S. Bauer, W. S. Browner, J. Cuzick, E. Ziv, V. Vogel, J. Shepherd, C. Vachon, R. Smith-Bindman, and K. Kerlikowske, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 101, 384 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and X. Fan, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51, 1236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Suter, J. D.

H. Zhu, I. H. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zouro, and X. Fan, Analyst 133, 356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Teraoka, I.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tice, J. A.

S. R. Cummings, J. A. Tice, S. Bauer, W. S. Browner, J. Cuzick, E. Ziv, V. Vogel, J. Shepherd, C. Vachon, R. Smith-Bindman, and K. Kerlikowske, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 101, 384 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vachon, C.

S. R. Cummings, J. A. Tice, S. Bauer, W. S. Browner, J. Cuzick, E. Ziv, V. Vogel, J. Shepherd, C. Vachon, R. Smith-Bindman, and K. Kerlikowske, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 101, 384 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, V.

S. R. Cummings, J. A. Tice, S. Bauer, W. S. Browner, J. Cuzick, E. Ziv, V. Vogel, J. Shepherd, C. Vachon, R. Smith-Bindman, and K. Kerlikowske, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 101, 384 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, Nat. Methods 5, 591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

White, I. H.

H. Zhu, I. H. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zouro, and X. Fan, Analyst 133, 356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

White, I. M.

X. Fan and I. M. White, Nat. Photonics 5, 591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, P.

S. I. Shopova, H. Zhou, X. Fan, and P. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 221101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, H.

S. I. Shopova, H. Zhou, X. Fan, and P. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 221101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, I. H. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zouro, and X. Fan, Analyst 133, 356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ziv, E.

S. R. Cummings, J. A. Tice, S. Bauer, W. S. Browner, J. Cuzick, E. Ziv, V. Vogel, J. Shepherd, C. Vachon, R. Smith-Bindman, and K. Kerlikowske, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 101, 384 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zouro, M.

H. Zhu, I. H. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zouro, and X. Fan, Analyst 133, 356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Analyst (1)

H. Zhu, I. H. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zouro, and X. Fan, Analyst 133, 356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

Y. Sun and X. Fan, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51, 1236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. I. Shopova, H. Zhou, X. Fan, and P. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 221101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Br. J. Pharmacol. (1)

V. C. Jordan, Br. J. Pharmacol. 110, 507 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1)

S. R. Cummings, J. A. Tice, S. Bauer, W. S. Browner, J. Cuzick, E. Ziv, V. Vogel, J. Shepherd, C. Vachon, R. Smith-Bindman, and K. Kerlikowske, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 101, 384 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Microfluid. Nanofluid. (1)

Z. Li and D. Psaltis, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 145 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods (1)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, Nat. Methods 5, 591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

X. Fan and I. M. White, Nat. Photonics 5, 591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmidt and A. R. Hawkins, Nat. Photonics 5, 598 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. J. Moon, Y. T. Chough, and A. Kyungwon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3161 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. Heebner, R. Grover, and T. A. Ibrahim, Optical MicroResonators (Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 2008).

M. Díaz, J. M.-Alonso, T. Gómez, R. Marín, F. Lahoz, and A. Boto, “Derivados del tamoxifeno, procedimiento de obtención y sus aplicaciones,” Patent, Appl. Number ES2498.5(5April2012).

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