Abstract

A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with embedded coupler is demonstrated for strain measurement. The embedded coupler is constructed by the selective filling of one of the air holes in the PCF. Light propagated in the fiber core can be efficiently coupled to the liquid-filled rod waveguide under phase-matching conditions, resulting in sharp decreasing of resonant wavelength intensity. The highest strain sensitivity is calculated to be 23.8pm/με due to the coupling between core mode and fundamental mode of the liquid rod, when the refractive index (RI) of the liquid is 1.46. With the increase of the RI, the resonance can also be observed between the core mode and the higher-order modes of the liquid rod, whereas the strain sensitivity drops to 6.4pm/με. The experimentally obtained static strain sensitivity values are 22 and 3.8pm/με for the coupling between the core mode and the fundamental mode or linearly polarized LP11 modes of the liquid rod, respectively, which are in good agreement with the simulations. The dynamic strain measurement resolution obtained is 1.2/(Hz)1/2.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

2011

Y. Wang, M. Yang, D. N. Wang, and C. R. Liao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1520 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, Y. Li, Y. Wang, H. Wang, W. Liang, and P. Lu, Opt. Express 19, 13880 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

2008

2007

G. Gagliardi, S. De Nicola, P. Ferrara, and P. De Natale, Opt. Express 15, 3715 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

2004

Albert, J.

Badenes, G.

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
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Bang, O.

Bigot, L.

Bjarklev, A.

Bouwmans, G.

Chan, C. C.

L. M. Hu, C. C. Chan, X. Y. Dong, Y. P. Wang, P. Zu, W. C. Wong, W. W. Chan, and T. Li, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. W.

L. M. Hu, C. C. Chan, X. Y. Dong, Y. P. Wang, P. Zu, W. C. Wong, W. W. Chan, and T. Li, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

Chow, J. H.

De Natale, P.

De Nicola, S.

Dong, X. Y.

L. M. Hu, C. C. Chan, X. Y. Dong, Y. P. Wang, P. Zu, W. C. Wong, W. W. Chan, and T. Li, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Fan, X. D.

Ferrara, P.

Finazzi, V.

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Gray, M. B.

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Kuhlmey, B. T.

Lægsgaard, J.

Laronche, A.

Li, T.

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Li, Y.

Liang, W.

Liao, C.

Liao, C. R.

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Lu, P.

McClelland, D. E.

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J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Quiquempois, Y.

Villatoro, J.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cross-section view of the selectively infiltrated PCF with embedded couplers. The red dotted circles highlight the hole filled with standard RI liquid.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Phase-matching curves of the coupling between the y-polarized PCF core mode (a) fundamental mode and (b) LP11 mode of the infiltrated liquid rod waveguide at 30°C before and after the axial strain is applied. Note that only the HE11, HE21, and TM01 modes are plotted in (b) for clarity, and the avoided crossings between the core LP01 and rod HE21 and between the core LP01 and TM01 modes are denoted as Resonance I and II, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Resonant wavelength shift with applied axial strain for (a) 31.3°C, 1.46 RI liquid filled and (b) 25°C, 1.506 RI liquid filled PCF with lengths of 26 and 37 mm, respectively. The infiltrated holes of the samples are the same as that shown in Fig. 1. Insets show their transmission spectra at different strains.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured strain resolution spectrum of sample II.

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