Abstract

We describe a technique for accurately measuring the ratio between the imaginary and real parts of the third-order nonlinearity in optical waveguides. Unlike most other methods, it does not depend on precise knowledge of the coupling efficiencies, optical propagation loss, or optical pulse shape. We apply the method to characterize a silicon waveguide, a GaAs waveguide, and AlGaAs waveguides with different alloy concentrations.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. Villeneuve, C. Yang, G. Stegeman, C. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R. Osgood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1172(1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1937 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Prigent and J.-P. Hamaide, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1092 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1153 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

J. S. Aitchison, M. K. Oliver, E. Kapon, E. Colas, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1305 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Q. Le, W. D. Goodhue, and K. Rauschenbach, Opt. Lett. 15, 1126 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

K. W. DeLong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1823 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, L. L. Buhl, and R. C. Alferness, Electron. Lett. 22, 409 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 5th ed. (Academic, 2012).

Aitchison, J. S.

K. Dolgaleva, W. C. Ng, L. Qian, and J. S. Aitchison, Opt. Express 19, 12440 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, M. K. Oliver, E. Kapon, E. Colas, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1305 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Alferness, R. C.

A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, L. L. Buhl, and R. C. Alferness, Electron. Lett. 22, 409 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1153 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Baumberg, J.

Buhl, L. L.

A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, L. L. Buhl, and R. C. Alferness, Electron. Lett. 22, 409 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Cattaneo, F.

Chen, X.

Chraplyvy, A. R.

A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, L. L. Buhl, and R. C. Alferness, Electron. Lett. 22, 409 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Colas, E.

J. S. Aitchison, M. K. Oliver, E. Kapon, E. Colas, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1305 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dadap, J. I.

DeLong, K. W.

K. W. DeLong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1823 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, F.

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1937 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dolgaleva, K.

Dulkeith, E.

Finlayson, C.

Foster, M. A.

Fukuda, H.

Gaeta, A. L.

Garcia, H.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goodhue, W. D.

Green, W. M.

Hamaide, J.-P.

L. Prigent and J.-P. Hamaide, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1092 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hasama, T.

Hsieh, I.-W.

Ironside, C.

A. Villeneuve, C. Yang, G. Stegeman, C. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R. Osgood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1172(1994).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, H.

Itabashi, S.

Kamei, T.

Kanamori, T.

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1153 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kapon, E.

J. S. Aitchison, M. K. Oliver, E. Kapon, E. Colas, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1305 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, H.

Kerdiles, J. F.

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1937 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kintaka, K.

Kolev, V.

Kubodera, K.

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1153 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Le, H. Q.

Li, W.

Liang, T.-K.

T.-K. Liang and H.-K. Tsang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, X.

Luther-Davies, B.

Madden, S.

Mori, M.

Netti, M.

Ng, W. C.

Ogasawara, T.

Okano, M.

Oliver, M. K.

J. S. Aitchison, M. K. Oliver, E. Kapon, E. Colas, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1305 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, J. R. M.

Osgood, R.

A. Villeneuve, C. Yang, G. Stegeman, C. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R. Osgood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1172(1994).
[CrossRef]

Panoiu, N. C.

Perney, N.

Prigent, L.

L. Prigent and J.-P. Hamaide, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1092 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Qian, L.

Quochi, F.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rauschenbach, K.

Rochford, K. B.

K. W. DeLong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1823 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rode, A.

Ruan, Y.

Sakakibara, Y.

Scelsi, G.

A. Villeneuve, C. Yang, G. Stegeman, C. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R. Osgood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1172(1994).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, T.

Shoji, Y.

Smith, P. W. E.

J. S. Aitchison, M. K. Oliver, E. Kapon, E. Colas, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1305 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sorel, Y.

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1937 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G.

A. Villeneuve, C. Yang, G. Stegeman, C. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R. Osgood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1172(1994).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

K. W. DeLong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1823 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Suda, S.

Suzuki, K.

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1153 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tai, C.-Y.

Takahashi, J.

Takahashi, M.

Tkach, R. W.

A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, L. L. Buhl, and R. C. Alferness, Electron. Lett. 22, 409 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H.-K.

T.-K. Liang and H.-K. Tsang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

Turner, A. C.

Villeneuve, A.

A. Villeneuve, C. Yang, G. Stegeman, C. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R. Osgood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1172(1994).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Watanabe, T.

Wilkinson, J.

Yamada, K.

Yang, C.

A. Villeneuve, C. Yang, G. Stegeman, C. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R. Osgood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1172(1994).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, M. K. Oliver, E. Kapon, E. Colas, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1305 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. W. DeLong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1823 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1153 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, L. L. Buhl, and R. C. Alferness, Electron. Lett. 22, 409 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1937 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Villeneuve, C. Yang, G. Stegeman, C. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R. Osgood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1172(1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T.-K. Liang and H.-K. Tsang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Prigent and J.-P. Hamaide, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1092 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 5th ed. (Academic, 2012).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

System used to measure the nonlinear loss tangent. MZM, Mach–Zehnder modulator; PC, polarization controller; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; BS, beam splitter; G-T POL, Glan–Thompson polarizer; OBPF, optical bandpass filter; PD, photodiode.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Cross sections and mode properties of the four waveguides studied for this Letter. The contours indicate the 5 and 15dB levels of the electric field for the TE eigenstate. (b) Representative S21(f) measurement for each waveguide (each offset for clarity).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

fu2 versus 2u for the silicon waveguide (II) obtained from 30 consecutive S21(f) measurements. Inset: similar linear fits for all four waveguides considered, enlarged to show difference in intercept.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

S21(f) measurements from the Al0.14Ga0.86As waveguide, obtained by increasing the pump power in 3 dB steps.

Equations (12)

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P1(t)=P10+ΔPsinΩt,
A2(t)=P20eiω0texp[i2γleffΔPsinΩt],
γ=γR+iγI=1Aeff(2πn2λ+iα22),
A2(t)=P20eiω0tm=Jm(z)eimΩt,
z2(γR+iγI)leffΔP.
β(ω)=β0+β1(ωω0)+β22(ωω0)2.
A2(t)=P20ei(ω0tβ0L)m=Jm(z)eimΩτeim2β2Ω2L/2,
i(t)=R|A2(t)|2=RP20mn[Jm(z)Jn(z)×ei(nm)Ωτei(n2m2)β2Ω2L/2].
i(t)=2RP20|z|sin(β2Ω2L/2+ϕ)sinΩτ,
i(t)=2RP20|z|sin(πλ2DLf2cϕ)sin(2πfτ),
tanϕ=γIγR=λα24πn2.
fu2=c2DLλ2(2u+2πϕ),u=0,1,2

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