Abstract

Deep-UV lithography using high-efficiency phase mask has been developed to print 100 nm period grating on sol-gel based thin layer. High efficiency phase mask has been designed to produce a high-contrast interferogram (periodic fringes) under water immersion conditions for 244 nm laser. The demonstration has been applied to a new developed immersion-compatible sol-gel layer. A sol-gel photoresist prepared from zirconium alkoxides caped with methacrylic acids was developed to achieve 50 nm resolution in a single step exposure. The nanostructures can be thermally annealed into ZrO2. Such route considerably simplifies the process for elaborating nanopatterned surfaces of transition metal oxides, and opens new routes for integrating materials of interest for applications in the field of photocatalysis, photovoltaic, optics, photonics or microelectronics.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Henzie, J. E. Barton, C. L. Stender, and T. W. Odom, Acc. Chem. Res. 39, 249 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. J. Fan, P. Werner, and M. Zacharias, Small 2, 700 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Z. Nie and E. Kumacheva, Nat. Mater. 7, 277 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Ridaoui, F. Wieder, A. Ponche, and O. Soppera, Nanotechnology 21, 065303 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Ridaoui, A. Dirani, O. Soppera, E. Ismailova, C. Brochon, G. Schlatter, G. Hadziioannou, R. Tiron, P. Bandelier, and C. Sourd, J. Polym. Sci. Part A 48, 1271 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. Soppera, A. Dirani, A. Ponche, and V. Roucoules, Nanotechnology 19, 395304 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Dirani, V. Roucoules, H. Haidara, and O. Soppera, Langmuir 26, 17532 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. M. Thomas, Proc SPIE 2288, 50 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Belleville, C. Bonnin, and J. J. Priotton, J. Sol–gel Sci. Technol. 19, 223 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Belleville, P. Prené, C. Bonnin, L. Beaurain, Y. Montouillout, and E. Lavastre, Proc SPIE 5250, 196 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Q. Y. Zhang, J. Shen, J. Wang, G. M. Wu, and L. Y. Chen, Int. J. Inorg. Mater. 2, 319 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. L. Tian, J. B. Huang, T. Wang, H. B. He, and J. D. Shao, Appl. Surf. Sci. 239, 201 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. B. Djurišic and E. H. Li, Appl. Opt. 37, 5291 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Daimon and A. Masumura, Appl. Opt. 46, 3811 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Gamet, A. V. Tishchenko, and O. Parriaux, Appl. Opt. 46, 6719 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Bourgin, Y. Jourlin, O. Parriaux, A. Talneau, S. Tonchev, C. Veillas, P. Karvinen, N. Passilly, A. R. Md Zain, R. M. De La Rue, J. Van Erps, and D. Troadec, Opt. Express 18, 10557 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Müller, Y. Jourlin, C. Veillas, G. Bernaud, Y. Bourgin, S. Tonchev, and O. Dellea, Opt. Eng. 50, 038001 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

P. Müller, Y. Jourlin, C. Veillas, G. Bernaud, Y. Bourgin, S. Tonchev, and O. Dellea, Opt. Eng. 50, 038001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

Y. Bourgin, Y. Jourlin, O. Parriaux, A. Talneau, S. Tonchev, C. Veillas, P. Karvinen, N. Passilly, A. R. Md Zain, R. M. De La Rue, J. Van Erps, and D. Troadec, Opt. Express 18, 10557 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Ridaoui, F. Wieder, A. Ponche, and O. Soppera, Nanotechnology 21, 065303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Ridaoui, A. Dirani, O. Soppera, E. Ismailova, C. Brochon, G. Schlatter, G. Hadziioannou, R. Tiron, P. Bandelier, and C. Sourd, J. Polym. Sci. Part A 48, 1271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Dirani, V. Roucoules, H. Haidara, and O. Soppera, Langmuir 26, 17532 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Z. Nie and E. Kumacheva, Nat. Mater. 7, 277 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Soppera, A. Dirani, A. Ponche, and V. Roucoules, Nanotechnology 19, 395304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

J. Henzie, J. E. Barton, C. L. Stender, and T. W. Odom, Acc. Chem. Res. 39, 249 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Fan, P. Werner, and M. Zacharias, Small 2, 700 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

G. L. Tian, J. B. Huang, T. Wang, H. B. He, and J. D. Shao, Appl. Surf. Sci. 239, 201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. Belleville, P. Prené, C. Bonnin, L. Beaurain, Y. Montouillout, and E. Lavastre, Proc SPIE 5250, 196 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

Q. Y. Zhang, J. Shen, J. Wang, G. M. Wu, and L. Y. Chen, Int. J. Inorg. Mater. 2, 319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Belleville, C. Bonnin, and J. J. Priotton, J. Sol–gel Sci. Technol. 19, 223 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1994 (1)

I. M. Thomas, Proc SPIE 2288, 50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bandelier, P.

H. Ridaoui, A. Dirani, O. Soppera, E. Ismailova, C. Brochon, G. Schlatter, G. Hadziioannou, R. Tiron, P. Bandelier, and C. Sourd, J. Polym. Sci. Part A 48, 1271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. E.

J. Henzie, J. E. Barton, C. L. Stender, and T. W. Odom, Acc. Chem. Res. 39, 249 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beaurain, L.

P. Belleville, P. Prené, C. Bonnin, L. Beaurain, Y. Montouillout, and E. Lavastre, Proc SPIE 5250, 196 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Belleville, P.

P. Belleville, P. Prené, C. Bonnin, L. Beaurain, Y. Montouillout, and E. Lavastre, Proc SPIE 5250, 196 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Belleville, C. Bonnin, and J. J. Priotton, J. Sol–gel Sci. Technol. 19, 223 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bernaud, G.

P. Müller, Y. Jourlin, C. Veillas, G. Bernaud, Y. Bourgin, S. Tonchev, and O. Dellea, Opt. Eng. 50, 038001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bonnin, C.

P. Belleville, P. Prené, C. Bonnin, L. Beaurain, Y. Montouillout, and E. Lavastre, Proc SPIE 5250, 196 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Belleville, C. Bonnin, and J. J. Priotton, J. Sol–gel Sci. Technol. 19, 223 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bourgin, Y.

Brochon, C.

H. Ridaoui, A. Dirani, O. Soppera, E. Ismailova, C. Brochon, G. Schlatter, G. Hadziioannou, R. Tiron, P. Bandelier, and C. Sourd, J. Polym. Sci. Part A 48, 1271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. Y.

Q. Y. Zhang, J. Shen, J. Wang, G. M. Wu, and L. Y. Chen, Int. J. Inorg. Mater. 2, 319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Daimon, M.

De La Rue, R. M.

Dellea, O.

P. Müller, Y. Jourlin, C. Veillas, G. Bernaud, Y. Bourgin, S. Tonchev, and O. Dellea, Opt. Eng. 50, 038001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dirani, A.

H. Ridaoui, A. Dirani, O. Soppera, E. Ismailova, C. Brochon, G. Schlatter, G. Hadziioannou, R. Tiron, P. Bandelier, and C. Sourd, J. Polym. Sci. Part A 48, 1271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Dirani, V. Roucoules, H. Haidara, and O. Soppera, Langmuir 26, 17532 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Soppera, A. Dirani, A. Ponche, and V. Roucoules, Nanotechnology 19, 395304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Djurišic, A. B.

Fan, H. J.

H. J. Fan, P. Werner, and M. Zacharias, Small 2, 700 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gamet, E.

Hadziioannou, G.

H. Ridaoui, A. Dirani, O. Soppera, E. Ismailova, C. Brochon, G. Schlatter, G. Hadziioannou, R. Tiron, P. Bandelier, and C. Sourd, J. Polym. Sci. Part A 48, 1271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Haidara, H.

A. Dirani, V. Roucoules, H. Haidara, and O. Soppera, Langmuir 26, 17532 (2010).
[CrossRef]

He, H. B.

G. L. Tian, J. B. Huang, T. Wang, H. B. He, and J. D. Shao, Appl. Surf. Sci. 239, 201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henzie, J.

J. Henzie, J. E. Barton, C. L. Stender, and T. W. Odom, Acc. Chem. Res. 39, 249 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. B.

G. L. Tian, J. B. Huang, T. Wang, H. B. He, and J. D. Shao, Appl. Surf. Sci. 239, 201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ismailova, E.

H. Ridaoui, A. Dirani, O. Soppera, E. Ismailova, C. Brochon, G. Schlatter, G. Hadziioannou, R. Tiron, P. Bandelier, and C. Sourd, J. Polym. Sci. Part A 48, 1271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jourlin, Y.

Karvinen, P.

Kumacheva, E.

Z. Nie and E. Kumacheva, Nat. Mater. 7, 277 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lavastre, E.

P. Belleville, P. Prené, C. Bonnin, L. Beaurain, Y. Montouillout, and E. Lavastre, Proc SPIE 5250, 196 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, E. H.

Masumura, A.

Md Zain, A. R.

Montouillout, Y.

P. Belleville, P. Prené, C. Bonnin, L. Beaurain, Y. Montouillout, and E. Lavastre, Proc SPIE 5250, 196 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Müller, P.

P. Müller, Y. Jourlin, C. Veillas, G. Bernaud, Y. Bourgin, S. Tonchev, and O. Dellea, Opt. Eng. 50, 038001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nie, Z.

Z. Nie and E. Kumacheva, Nat. Mater. 7, 277 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Odom, T. W.

J. Henzie, J. E. Barton, C. L. Stender, and T. W. Odom, Acc. Chem. Res. 39, 249 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Parriaux, O.

Passilly, N.

Ponche, A.

H. Ridaoui, F. Wieder, A. Ponche, and O. Soppera, Nanotechnology 21, 065303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Soppera, A. Dirani, A. Ponche, and V. Roucoules, Nanotechnology 19, 395304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prené, P.

P. Belleville, P. Prené, C. Bonnin, L. Beaurain, Y. Montouillout, and E. Lavastre, Proc SPIE 5250, 196 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Priotton, J. J.

P. Belleville, C. Bonnin, and J. J. Priotton, J. Sol–gel Sci. Technol. 19, 223 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ridaoui, H.

H. Ridaoui, A. Dirani, O. Soppera, E. Ismailova, C. Brochon, G. Schlatter, G. Hadziioannou, R. Tiron, P. Bandelier, and C. Sourd, J. Polym. Sci. Part A 48, 1271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Ridaoui, F. Wieder, A. Ponche, and O. Soppera, Nanotechnology 21, 065303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roucoules, V.

A. Dirani, V. Roucoules, H. Haidara, and O. Soppera, Langmuir 26, 17532 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Soppera, A. Dirani, A. Ponche, and V. Roucoules, Nanotechnology 19, 395304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schlatter, G.

H. Ridaoui, A. Dirani, O. Soppera, E. Ismailova, C. Brochon, G. Schlatter, G. Hadziioannou, R. Tiron, P. Bandelier, and C. Sourd, J. Polym. Sci. Part A 48, 1271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shao, J. D.

G. L. Tian, J. B. Huang, T. Wang, H. B. He, and J. D. Shao, Appl. Surf. Sci. 239, 201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J.

Q. Y. Zhang, J. Shen, J. Wang, G. M. Wu, and L. Y. Chen, Int. J. Inorg. Mater. 2, 319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Soppera, O.

H. Ridaoui, A. Dirani, O. Soppera, E. Ismailova, C. Brochon, G. Schlatter, G. Hadziioannou, R. Tiron, P. Bandelier, and C. Sourd, J. Polym. Sci. Part A 48, 1271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Ridaoui, F. Wieder, A. Ponche, and O. Soppera, Nanotechnology 21, 065303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Dirani, V. Roucoules, H. Haidara, and O. Soppera, Langmuir 26, 17532 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Soppera, A. Dirani, A. Ponche, and V. Roucoules, Nanotechnology 19, 395304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sourd, C.

H. Ridaoui, A. Dirani, O. Soppera, E. Ismailova, C. Brochon, G. Schlatter, G. Hadziioannou, R. Tiron, P. Bandelier, and C. Sourd, J. Polym. Sci. Part A 48, 1271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stender, C. L.

J. Henzie, J. E. Barton, C. L. Stender, and T. W. Odom, Acc. Chem. Res. 39, 249 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Talneau, A.

Thomas, I. M.

I. M. Thomas, Proc SPIE 2288, 50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tian, G. L.

G. L. Tian, J. B. Huang, T. Wang, H. B. He, and J. D. Shao, Appl. Surf. Sci. 239, 201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tiron, R.

H. Ridaoui, A. Dirani, O. Soppera, E. Ismailova, C. Brochon, G. Schlatter, G. Hadziioannou, R. Tiron, P. Bandelier, and C. Sourd, J. Polym. Sci. Part A 48, 1271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tishchenko, A. V.

Tonchev, S.

Troadec, D.

Van Erps, J.

Veillas, C.

Wang, J.

Q. Y. Zhang, J. Shen, J. Wang, G. M. Wu, and L. Y. Chen, Int. J. Inorg. Mater. 2, 319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

G. L. Tian, J. B. Huang, T. Wang, H. B. He, and J. D. Shao, Appl. Surf. Sci. 239, 201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Werner, P.

H. J. Fan, P. Werner, and M. Zacharias, Small 2, 700 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wieder, F.

H. Ridaoui, F. Wieder, A. Ponche, and O. Soppera, Nanotechnology 21, 065303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, G. M.

Q. Y. Zhang, J. Shen, J. Wang, G. M. Wu, and L. Y. Chen, Int. J. Inorg. Mater. 2, 319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zacharias, M.

H. J. Fan, P. Werner, and M. Zacharias, Small 2, 700 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q. Y.

Q. Y. Zhang, J. Shen, J. Wang, G. M. Wu, and L. Y. Chen, Int. J. Inorg. Mater. 2, 319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

J. Henzie, J. E. Barton, C. L. Stender, and T. W. Odom, Acc. Chem. Res. 39, 249 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

G. L. Tian, J. B. Huang, T. Wang, H. B. He, and J. D. Shao, Appl. Surf. Sci. 239, 201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Inorg. Mater. (1)

Q. Y. Zhang, J. Shen, J. Wang, G. M. Wu, and L. Y. Chen, Int. J. Inorg. Mater. 2, 319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Polym. Sci. Part A (1)

H. Ridaoui, A. Dirani, O. Soppera, E. Ismailova, C. Brochon, G. Schlatter, G. Hadziioannou, R. Tiron, P. Bandelier, and C. Sourd, J. Polym. Sci. Part A 48, 1271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Sol–gel Sci. Technol. (1)

P. Belleville, C. Bonnin, and J. J. Priotton, J. Sol–gel Sci. Technol. 19, 223 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

A. Dirani, V. Roucoules, H. Haidara, and O. Soppera, Langmuir 26, 17532 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (2)

O. Soppera, A. Dirani, A. Ponche, and V. Roucoules, Nanotechnology 19, 395304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ridaoui, F. Wieder, A. Ponche, and O. Soppera, Nanotechnology 21, 065303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

Z. Nie and E. Kumacheva, Nat. Mater. 7, 277 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. Müller, Y. Jourlin, C. Veillas, G. Bernaud, Y. Bourgin, S. Tonchev, and O. Dellea, Opt. Eng. 50, 038001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc SPIE (2)

P. Belleville, P. Prené, C. Bonnin, L. Beaurain, Y. Montouillout, and E. Lavastre, Proc SPIE 5250, 196 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Thomas, Proc SPIE 2288, 50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Small (1)

H. J. Fan, P. Werner, and M. Zacharias, Small 2, 700 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic representation of the lithography setup and material used. Red circles around Zr center symbolize the encapsulation of the Zr center by MAA complexation. Second step schematizes the effect of DUV on Zr-MAA complexes, leading to the cross-linked structure in the third scheme.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Table summarizing the grating parameters, (b) cross section SEM picture of the 200 nm period phase mask, and (c) power distribution modeling below the grating in water versus the number of phase mask periods (200 nm) according to the grating profile of the table.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Examples of nanostructures made by immersion DUV interferometric lithography using Zr sol-gel photoresist. (a) Far-field view of a 100 nm period grating, (b) zoom, (c) cross-section view of the sample after lithography, and (d) after thermal annealing (500°C, 2 h).

Metrics