Abstract

We report on infrared supercontinuum generation extending over more than one octave of bandwidth, from 850 nm to 2.35 μm, produced in a single spatial mode from a robust, compact, composite chalcogenide glass nanotaper. A picosecond laser at 1.55 μm pumps a high-index-contrast, all-solid nanotaper that strongly confines the field to a 480 nm diameter core, while a thermally compatible built-in polymer jacket lends the nanotaper mechanical stability.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. J. M. Dudley and J. R. Taylor, eds., Supercontinuum Generation in Optical Fibers (Cambridge University, 2010).
  4. P. Domachuk, N. A. Wolchover, M. Cronin-Golomb, A. Wang, A. K. George, C. M. B. Cordeiro, J. C. Knight, and F. G. Omenetto, Opt. Express 16, 7161 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. P. Kulkarni, V. V. Alexander, M. Kumar, M. J. Freeman, M. N. Islam, J. F. L. Terry, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2486 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, Optical Nonlineartities in Chalcogneide Glasses and their Applications (Springer, 2007).
  8. W. Gao, M. Liao, X. Yan, C. Kito, T. Kohoutek, T. Suzuki, M. El-Amraoui, J. C. Jules, G. Gadret, F. Desevedavy, F. Smektala, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Express 4, 102601 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. D. Hudson, S. A. Dekker, E. C. Mägi, A. C. Judge, S. D. Jackson, E. Li, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, I. D. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Lett. 36, 1122 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Shabahang, J. J. Kaufman, D. S. Deng, and A. F. Abouraddy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161909 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. E. Lines, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 4058 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. J. Kaufman, G. Tao, S. Shabahang, D. S. Deng, Y. Fink, and A. F. Abouraddy, Nano Lett. 11, 4768 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. J. Hagan and E. W. Van Stryland, CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida(private communication, 2012).
  18. J. Hu, C. R. Menyuk, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, Opt. Express 18, 6722 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Xiong, E. Magi, F. Luan, A. Tuniz, S. Dekker, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, I. D. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Opt. 48, 5467 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2006).

2012

2011

W. Gao, M. Liao, X. Yan, C. Kito, T. Kohoutek, T. Suzuki, M. El-Amraoui, J. C. Jules, G. Gadret, F. Desevedavy, F. Smektala, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Express 4, 102601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Hudson, S. A. Dekker, E. C. Mägi, A. C. Judge, S. D. Jackson, E. Li, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, I. D. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Lett. 36, 1122 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kulkarni, V. V. Alexander, M. Kumar, M. J. Freeman, M. N. Islam, J. F. L. Terry, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2486 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Shabahang, J. J. Kaufman, D. S. Deng, and A. F. Abouraddy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Kaufman, G. Tao, S. Shabahang, D. S. Deng, Y. Fink, and A. F. Abouraddy, Nano Lett. 11, 4768 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

C. Xiong, E. Magi, F. Luan, A. Tuniz, S. Dekker, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, I. D. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Opt. 48, 5467 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, F. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148 (2006).

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2000

1984

M. E. Lines, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 4058 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Abouraddy, A. F.

G. Tao, S. Shabahang, E.-H. Banaei, J. J. Kaufman, and A. F. Abouraddy, Opt. Lett. 37, 2751 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Shabahang, J. J. Kaufman, D. S. Deng, and A. F. Abouraddy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Kaufman, G. Tao, S. Shabahang, D. S. Deng, Y. Fink, and A. F. Abouraddy, Nano Lett. 11, 4768 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

D. D. Hudson, S. A. Dekker, E. C. Mägi, A. C. Judge, S. D. Jackson, E. Li, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, I. D. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Lett. 36, 1122 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hu, C. R. Menyuk, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, Opt. Express 18, 6722 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Xiong, E. Magi, F. Luan, A. Tuniz, S. Dekker, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, I. D. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Opt. 48, 5467 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, F. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148 (2006).

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, F. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148 (2006).

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2006).

Alexander, V. V.

Banaei, E.-H.

Bayindir, M.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benoit, G.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Chan, A.

Chaudhari, C.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

Cronin-Golomb, M.

Dekker, S.

Dekker, S. A.

Deng, D. S.

J. J. Kaufman, G. Tao, S. Shabahang, D. S. Deng, Y. Fink, and A. F. Abouraddy, Nano Lett. 11, 4768 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Shabahang, J. J. Kaufman, D. S. Deng, and A. F. Abouraddy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Desevedavy, F.

W. Gao, M. Liao, X. Yan, C. Kito, T. Kohoutek, T. Suzuki, M. El-Amraoui, J. C. Jules, G. Gadret, F. Desevedavy, F. Smektala, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Express 4, 102601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Domachuk, P.

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

El-Amraoui, M.

W. Gao, M. Liao, X. Yan, C. Kito, T. Kohoutek, T. Suzuki, M. El-Amraoui, J. C. Jules, G. Gadret, F. Desevedavy, F. Smektala, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Express 4, 102601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, S. R.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, Optical Nonlineartities in Chalcogneide Glasses and their Applications (Springer, 2007).

Fink, Y.

J. J. Kaufman, G. Tao, S. Shabahang, D. S. Deng, Y. Fink, and A. F. Abouraddy, Nano Lett. 11, 4768 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Florea, C. M.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, F. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148 (2006).

Freeman, M. J.

Gadret, G.

W. Gao, M. Liao, X. Yan, C. Kito, T. Kohoutek, T. Suzuki, M. El-Amraoui, J. C. Jules, G. Gadret, F. Desevedavy, F. Smektala, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Express 4, 102601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gao, W.

W. Gao, M. Liao, X. Yan, C. Kito, T. Kohoutek, T. Suzuki, M. El-Amraoui, J. C. Jules, G. Gadret, F. Desevedavy, F. Smektala, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Express 4, 102601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

George, A. K.

Hagan, D. J.

D. J. Hagan and E. W. Van Stryland, CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida(private communication, 2012).

Hart, S. D.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

Hudson, D. D.

Islam, M. N.

Jackson, S. D.

Judge, A. C.

Jules, J. C.

W. Gao, M. Liao, X. Yan, C. Kito, T. Kohoutek, T. Suzuki, M. El-Amraoui, J. C. Jules, G. Gadret, F. Desevedavy, F. Smektala, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Express 4, 102601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, J. J.

G. Tao, S. Shabahang, E.-H. Banaei, J. J. Kaufman, and A. F. Abouraddy, Opt. Lett. 37, 2751 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Shabahang, J. J. Kaufman, D. S. Deng, and A. F. Abouraddy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Kaufman, G. Tao, S. Shabahang, D. S. Deng, Y. Fink, and A. F. Abouraddy, Nano Lett. 11, 4768 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kito, C.

W. Gao, M. Liao, X. Yan, C. Kito, T. Kohoutek, T. Suzuki, M. El-Amraoui, J. C. Jules, G. Gadret, F. Desevedavy, F. Smektala, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Express 4, 102601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Kohoutek, T.

W. Gao, M. Liao, X. Yan, C. Kito, T. Kohoutek, T. Suzuki, M. El-Amraoui, J. C. Jules, G. Gadret, F. Desevedavy, F. Smektala, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Express 4, 102601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, O. P.

Kumar, M.

Kung, F.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, F. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148 (2006).

Kuriki, K.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, E.

Liao, M.

W. Gao, M. Liao, X. Yan, C. Kito, T. Kohoutek, T. Suzuki, M. El-Amraoui, J. C. Jules, G. Gadret, F. Desevedavy, F. Smektala, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Express 4, 102601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lines, M. E.

M. E. Lines, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 4058 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Luan, F.

Magi, E.

Mägi, E. C.

Menyuk, C. R.

Neelakandan, M.

Nguyen, V. Q.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, F. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148 (2006).

Ohishi, Y.

W. Gao, M. Liao, X. Yan, C. Kito, T. Kohoutek, T. Suzuki, M. El-Amraoui, J. C. Jules, G. Gadret, F. Desevedavy, F. Smektala, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Express 4, 102601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Omenetto, F. G.

Orf, N.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pureza, P.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, F. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148 (2006).

Qin, G.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

Russell, P. S. J.

Sanghera, J. S.

Shabahang, S.

G. Tao, S. Shabahang, E.-H. Banaei, J. J. Kaufman, and A. F. Abouraddy, Opt. Lett. 37, 2751 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Shabahang, J. J. Kaufman, D. S. Deng, and A. F. Abouraddy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Kaufman, G. Tao, S. Shabahang, D. S. Deng, Y. Fink, and A. F. Abouraddy, Nano Lett. 11, 4768 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shapira, O.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, L. B.

Smektala, F.

W. Gao, M. Liao, X. Yan, C. Kito, T. Kohoutek, T. Suzuki, M. El-Amraoui, J. C. Jules, G. Gadret, F. Desevedavy, F. Smektala, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Express 4, 102601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sorin, F.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A. J.

Suzuki, T.

W. Gao, M. Liao, X. Yan, C. Kito, T. Kohoutek, T. Suzuki, M. El-Amraoui, J. C. Jules, G. Gadret, F. Desevedavy, F. Smektala, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Express 4, 102601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tao, G.

G. Tao, S. Shabahang, E.-H. Banaei, J. J. Kaufman, and A. F. Abouraddy, Opt. Lett. 37, 2751 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Kaufman, G. Tao, S. Shabahang, D. S. Deng, Y. Fink, and A. F. Abouraddy, Nano Lett. 11, 4768 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Temelkuran, B.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Terry, J. F. L.

Tuniz, A.

Van Stryland, E. W.

D. J. Hagan and E. W. Van Stryland, CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida(private communication, 2012).

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, A.

Windeler, R. S.

Wolchover, N. A.

Xiong, C.

Yan, X.

W. Gao, M. Liao, X. Yan, C. Kito, T. Kohoutek, T. Suzuki, M. El-Amraoui, J. C. Jules, G. Gadret, F. Desevedavy, F. Smektala, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Express 4, 102601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zakery, A.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, Optical Nonlineartities in Chalcogneide Glasses and their Applications (Springer, 2007).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Express

W. Gao, M. Liao, X. Yan, C. Kito, T. Kohoutek, T. Suzuki, M. El-Amraoui, J. C. Jules, G. Gadret, F. Desevedavy, F. Smektala, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Express 4, 102601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Shabahang, J. J. Kaufman, D. S. Deng, and A. F. Abouraddy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. E. Lines, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 4058 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, F. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148 (2006).

Nano Lett.

J. J. Kaufman, G. Tao, S. Shabahang, D. S. Deng, Y. Fink, and A. F. Abouraddy, Nano Lett. 11, 4768 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Mod. Phys.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. J. Hagan and E. W. Van Stryland, CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida(private communication, 2012).

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, Optical Nonlineartities in Chalcogneide Glasses and their Applications (Springer, 2007).

J. M. Dudley and J. R. Taylor, eds., Supercontinuum Generation in Optical Fibers (Cambridge University, 2010).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Composite ChG fiber. (b) SEM micrograph of the fiber cross section, dc=10μm. (c) Robust nanotaper produced from the fiber in (a). (d) SEM micrograph of the taper cross section at the axial midpoint, dcmin=480nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Schematic of the optical setup: A, attenuator; L1, L2, lenses; T, nano-taper; FC, fiber collimator; SMF, single-mode fiber; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer. (b) Autocorrelation trace, (c) spectrum, and (d) pump mode distribution 2 m from the laser. Since the beam lacks symmetry, the coupling efficiency was reduced compared to a symmetric spatial mode.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SCG in robust ChG tapers. The measured output spectrum is plotted with increasing input pump power from (i) through (vi).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Calculated spectrum at the nanotaper output with increasing input pump power obtained by integrating the GNLSE. See text for details. (b) Output spectrum for input Pp=3, 5, and 10  kW.

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