Abstract

We present a series of sub-wavelength annular aperture (SAA) structures with annular width equal to the tip of a tapered hollow tube, which was fabricated using a heat-pulled method. The light beams emitted from the SAA-like structures created by the tapered hollow tube produced light beams characteristic of Bessel beams. We obtained a sub-micrometer focal spot with a depth-of-focus larger than 7 μm and identified the proper structure parameters needed to generate Bessel-like light beams. Our new design has potential application to areas such as optical lithography, optical trapping, and the fabrication of high aspect ratio structures.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

J. A. Fu, H. T. Dong, and W. Fang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. McLeod and C. B. Arnold, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

Y. Matsuoka, Y. Kizuka, and T. Inoue, Appl. Phys. A 84, 423 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Borecki, M. Korwin-Pawłowski, and M. Bebłowska, Proc. SPIE 6347, 634715 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

A. Lazarev, N. Fang, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3684 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Chaudhuri, C. Lu, and W. Xiaoyan, Opt. Commun. 228, 285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. Arlt, V. Garces-Chavez, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 197, 239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

C. Won, S. H. Yoo, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, Opt. Commun. 161, 25 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, J. Opt. B 1, 364 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1987 (2)

J. Durnin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 651 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Durnin, J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Arlt, J.

J. Arlt, V. Garces-Chavez, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 197, 239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, C. B.

E. McLeod and C. B. Arnold, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beblowska, M.

M. Borecki, M. Korwin-Pawłowski, and M. Bebłowska, Proc. SPIE 6347, 634715 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Borecki, M.

M. Borecki, M. Korwin-Pawłowski, and M. Bebłowska, Proc. SPIE 6347, 634715 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. K.

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chaudhuri, P. R.

P. R. Chaudhuri, C. Lu, and W. Xiaoyan, Opt. Commun. 228, 285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, T. D.

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

J. Arlt, V. Garces-Chavez, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 197, 239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dong, H. T.

J. A. Fu, H. T. Dong, and W. Fang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Durnin, J.

J. Durnin, J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Durnin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 651 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J. H.

J. Durnin, J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N.

A. Lazarev, N. Fang, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3684 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fang, W.

J. A. Fu, H. T. Dong, and W. Fang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fu, J. A.

J. A. Fu, H. T. Dong, and W. Fang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garces-Chavez, V.

J. Arlt, V. Garces-Chavez, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 197, 239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Holton, M.

Huang, L. S.

Inoue, T.

Y. Matsuoka, Y. Kizuka, and T. Inoue, Appl. Phys. A 84, 423 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jhe, W.

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, J. Opt. B 1, 364 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Won, S. H. Yoo, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, Opt. Commun. 161, 25 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. A.

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, J. Opt. B 1, 364 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, J. Opt. B 1, 364 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kizuka, Y.

Y. Matsuoka, Y. Kizuka, and T. Inoue, Appl. Phys. A 84, 423 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Korwin-Pawlowski, M.

M. Borecki, M. Korwin-Pawłowski, and M. Bebłowska, Proc. SPIE 6347, 634715 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lazarev, A.

A. Lazarev, N. Fang, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3684 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. K.

Y. Y. Yu, D. Z. Lin, L. S. Huang, and C. K. Lee, Opt. Express 17, 2707 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, D. Z.

Y. Y. Yu, D. Z. Lin, L. S. Huang, and C. K. Lee, Opt. Express 17, 2707 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

P. R. Chaudhuri, C. Lu, and W. Xiaoyan, Opt. Commun. 228, 285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Q.

A. Lazarev, N. Fang, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3684 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsuoka, Y.

Y. Matsuoka, Y. Kizuka, and T. Inoue, Appl. Phys. A 84, 423 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McLeod, E.

E. McLeod and C. B. Arnold, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miceli, J.

J. Durnin, J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, G. H.

Oh, K.

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, J. Opt. B 1, 364 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Won, S. H. Yoo, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, Opt. Commun. 161, 25 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U. C.

C. Won, S. H. Yoo, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, Opt. Commun. 161, 25 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, J. Opt. B 1, 364 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shim, U.

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, J. Opt. B 1, 364 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

J. Arlt, V. Garces-Chavez, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 197, 239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Valaskovic, G. A.

Won, C.

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, J. Opt. B 1, 364 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Won, S. H. Yoo, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, Opt. Commun. 161, 25 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xiaoyan, W.

P. R. Chaudhuri, C. Lu, and W. Xiaoyan, Opt. Commun. 228, 285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C. S.

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S. H.

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, J. Opt. B 1, 364 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Won, S. H. Yoo, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, Opt. Commun. 161, 25 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y. Y.

Zhang, X.

A. Lazarev, N. Fang, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3684 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

Y. Matsuoka, Y. Kizuka, and T. Inoue, Appl. Phys. A 84, 423 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Fu, H. T. Dong, and W. Fang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. B (1)

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. A. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, J. Opt. B 1, 364 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

E. McLeod and C. B. Arnold, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

P. R. Chaudhuri, C. Lu, and W. Xiaoyan, Opt. Commun. 228, 285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Arlt, V. Garces-Chavez, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 197, 239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Won, S. H. Yoo, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and W. Jhe, Opt. Commun. 161, 25 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Durnin, J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Borecki, M. Korwin-Pawłowski, and M. Bebłowska, Proc. SPIE 6347, 634715 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Lazarev, N. Fang, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3684 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of experimental setup: (a) untapered hollow tube structure, (b) tapered hollow tube before focused ion beam (FIB) process, and (c) tapered hollow tube after FIB process at 4.94 μm tip outer diameter and 3.98 μm tip inner diameter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Intensity profiles at different propagation distances (different x–y plane) with (a)–(f) tip outer diameter of 4.94 μm and (g)–(l) tip outer diameter of 9.80 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulation results: (a) electric field intensity at x-z plane for 4.94 μm outer diameter tip and (b) electric field intensity at x-z plane for 3.30 μm outer diameter tip. (Note: two scale bars indicate each electric field for an arbitrary unit.) Experimental results for 3.30 μm outer diameter tip: (c) intensity profile at z=5μm, (d) intensity profile at z=4μm, (e) intensity profile at z=2μm, (f) intensity profile at z=1μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Hollow tube structure (not to scale) and mode propagating schematic diagram. (Note: only the tube wall modes propagate due to the total internal reflection and due to the few air modes).

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