Abstract

Various confocal microscope architectures have been developed for in vivo tissue imaging, including single-axis confocal (SAC) and dual-axis confocal (DAC) configurations utilizing both point-scanning (PS) and line-scanning (LS) approaches. While it is known that these design variations lead to tradeoffs in imaging performance, a quantitative comparison of the imaging performance of these configurations in highly turbid media would be of value. Here, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the optical-sectioning capability of these various confocal microscope architectures in reflectance mode. In particular, we investigate the axial and transverse responses of these configurations to reflective targets at various depths within a homogenous scattering medium. We find that the DAC-PS configuration results in superior rejection of multiply scattered background light compared to all other configurations, followed in performance by the SAC-PS, the DAC-LS, and then the SAC-LS. Line scanning with both the DAC and SAC configurations leads to photon crosstalk between pixels. However, at shallow depths, the axial and transverse resolution of all configurations is maintained in a homogeneous scattering medium.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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2011

2009

A. A. Tanbakuchi, A. R. Rouse, and A. F. Gmitro, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 044024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, T. D. Wang, and G. S. Kino, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

B. Simon and C. A. Dimarzio, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 064020 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Dwyer, C. A. DiMarzio, and M. Rajadhyaksha, Appl. Opt. 46, 1843 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

1999

1990

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1941

L. Henyey and J. Greenstein, Astrophys. J. 93, 70(1941).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, K.

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chidley, M.

Contag, C. H.

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, T. D. Wang, and G. S. Kino, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, J. M.

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, T. D. Wang, and G. S. Kino, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Descour, M.

Dimarzio, C. A.

Donaldson, L.

Dwyer, P. J.

Follen, M.

Gillenwater, A.

Gmitro, A. F.

A. A. Tanbakuchi, A. R. Rouse, and A. F. Gmitro, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 044024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Sabharwal, A. R. Rouse, L. Donaldson, M. F. Hopkins, and A. F. Gmitro, Appl. Opt. 38, 7133 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Greenstein, J.

L. Henyey and J. Greenstein, Astrophys. J. 93, 70(1941).
[CrossRef]

Henyey, L.

L. Henyey and J. Greenstein, Astrophys. J. 93, 70(1941).
[CrossRef]

Hopkins, M. F.

Kino, G. S.

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, T. D. Wang, and G. S. Kino, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. T. C.

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, T. D. Wang, and G. S. Kino, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mandella, M. J.

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, T. D. Wang, and G. S. Kino, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patel, Y. G.

Pawley, J. B.

J. B. Pawley, Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 2nd ed. (Plenum, 1995).

Prahl, S. A.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

Richards-Kortum, R.

Rouse, A. R.

A. A. Tanbakuchi, A. R. Rouse, and A. F. Gmitro, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 044024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Sabharwal, A. R. Rouse, L. Donaldson, M. F. Hopkins, and A. F. Gmitro, Appl. Opt. 38, 7133 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sabharwal, Y. S.

Simon, B.

B. Simon and C. A. Dimarzio, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 064020 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sung, K. B.

Tanbakuchi, A. A.

A. A. Tanbakuchi, A. R. Rouse, and A. F. Gmitro, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 044024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. D.

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, T. D. Wang, and G. S. Kino, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Welch, A. J.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astrophys. J.

L. Henyey and J. Greenstein, Astrophys. J. 93, 70(1941).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, T. D. Wang, and G. S. Kino, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Simon and C. A. Dimarzio, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 064020 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Tanbakuchi, A. R. Rouse, and A. F. Gmitro, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 044024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. B. Pawley, Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 2nd ed. (Plenum, 1995).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) DAC and (b) SAC microscope designs used for Monte Carlo simulations. The focal regions are shown in (c) and (d) for the DAC and SAC, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Simulated peak signal from a mirror at the focus, and the scattering background (no mirror), as a function of optical length (Lp=2μsd) for all confocal microscope architectures. A linear fit of the DAC-PS peak signal is also shown. (b) The SBR for all configurations. The axial responses of the (c) DAC and (d) SAC configurations with Lp=1.5, 4.5, and 7.5.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transverse responses to a knife-edge reflective target at various imaging depths Lp=1.5, 4.5, 7.5 for (a) the DAC-PS, (b) SAC-PS, (c) DAC-LS, and (d) SAC-LS architectures.

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