Abstract

A simple, compact, and highly sensitive optical fiber directional bend sensor is presented. This device consists of a lateral-offset splicing joint and an up-taper formed through excessive fusion splicing method. The lateral-offset splicing breaks the cylindrical symmetry of the fiber and defines a pair of directions along which the bending response of the Mach–Zehnder interferometer transmission spectrum is different and thus could be used for bending vector measurement. For a curvature range from 3 to 3m1, the bending sensitivities at 1463.86 nm and 1548.41 nm reach 11.987nm/m1 and 8.697nm/m1, respectively.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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Y. Zhou, W. J. Zhou, C. C. Chan, W. C. Wong, L. Y. Shao, J. Cheng, and X. Y. Dong, Opt. Commun. 284, 5669(2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Monzon-Hernandez, A. Martinez-Rios, I. Torres-Gomez, and G. Salceda-Delgado, Opt. Lett. 36, 4380 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Deng, C. P. Tang, T. Zhu, and Y. J. Rao, Opt. Commun. 284, 2849 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Gouveia, P. A. S. Jorge, J. M. Baptista, and O. Frazão, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, Y. J. Rao, and Y. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 679 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Geng, X. J. Li, X. L. Tan, Y. L. Deng, and Y. Q. Yu, IEEE Sensors J. 11, 2891 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B. A. Yu, Y. C. Noh, and T. J. Ahn, Opt. Commun. 283, 2097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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X. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, R. Suo, G. D. Peng, and K. Kalli, Proc. SPIE 7503, 750327-1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H.-P. Loock, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1387 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2004 (1)

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[CrossRef]

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I. C. Goyal, R. L. Gallawa, and A. K. Ghatak, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 768 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, T. J.

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B. A. Yu, Y. C. Noh, and T. J. Ahn, Opt. Commun. 283, 2097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Araújo, F. M.

Baptista, J. M.

C. Gouveia, P. A. S. Jorge, J. M. Baptista, and O. Frazão, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. S.

Bennion, I.

Caldas, P.

Chan, C. C.

Y. Zhou, W. J. Zhou, C. C. Chan, W. C. Wong, L. Y. Shao, J. Cheng, and X. Y. Dong, Opt. Commun. 284, 5669(2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, R. Suo, G. D. Peng, and K. Kalli, Proc. SPIE 7503, 750327-1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. F.

Cheng, J.

Y. Zhou, W. J. Zhou, C. C. Chan, W. C. Wong, L. Y. Shao, J. Cheng, and X. Y. Dong, Opt. Commun. 284, 5669(2011).
[CrossRef]

Deng, M.

M. Deng, C. P. Tang, T. Zhu, and Y. J. Rao, Opt. Commun. 284, 2849 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Y. L.

Y. F. Geng, X. J. Li, X. L. Tan, Y. L. Deng, and Y. Q. Yu, IEEE Sensors J. 11, 2891 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X. Y.

Y. Zhou, W. J. Zhou, C. C. Chan, W. C. Wong, L. Y. Shao, J. Cheng, and X. Y. Dong, Opt. Commun. 284, 5669(2011).
[CrossRef]

Farahi, F.

Ferreira, L. A.

Flockhart, G. M. H.

Frazão, O.

C. Gouveia, P. A. S. Jorge, J. M. Baptista, and O. Frazão, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, J. Viegas, P. Caldas, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, L. A. Ferreira, and F. Farahi, Opt. Lett. 32, 3074 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gallawa, R. L.

I. C. Goyal, R. L. Gallawa, and A. K. Ghatak, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 768 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Geng, Y. F.

Y. F. Geng, X. J. Li, X. L. Tan, Y. L. Deng, and Y. Q. Yu, IEEE Sensors J. 11, 2891 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ghatak, A. K.

I. C. Goyal, R. L. Gallawa, and A. K. Ghatak, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 768 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Y.

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, Y. J. Rao, and Y. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 679 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gouveia, C.

C. Gouveia, P. A. S. Jorge, J. M. Baptista, and O. Frazão, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Goyal, I. C.

I. C. Goyal, R. L. Gallawa, and A. K. Ghatak, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 768 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. D. C.

Jorge, P. A. S.

C. Gouveia, P. A. S. Jorge, J. M. Baptista, and O. Frazão, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kalli, K.

X. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, R. Suo, G. D. Peng, and K. Kalli, Proc. SPIE 7503, 750327-1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. L.

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B. A. Yu, Y. C. Noh, and T. J. Ahn, Opt. Commun. 283, 2097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. J.

Y. F. Geng, X. J. Li, X. L. Tan, Y. L. Deng, and Y. Q. Yu, IEEE Sensors J. 11, 2891 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Loock, H.-P.

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H.-P. Loock, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1387 (2008).
[CrossRef]

MacPherson, W. N.

Martinez-Rios, A.

Monzon-Hernandez, D.

Neal, R.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Noh, Y. C.

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B. A. Yu, Y. C. Noh, and T. J. Ahn, Opt. Commun. 283, 2097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peng, G. D.

X. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, R. Suo, G. D. Peng, and K. Kalli, Proc. SPIE 7503, 750327-1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y. J.

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, Y. J. Rao, and Y. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 679 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Deng, C. P. Tang, T. Zhu, and Y. J. Rao, Opt. Commun. 284, 2849 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reeves, R.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Salceda-Delgado, G.

Santos, J. L.

Shao, L. Y.

Y. Zhou, W. J. Zhou, C. C. Chan, W. C. Wong, L. Y. Shao, J. Cheng, and X. Y. Dong, Opt. Commun. 284, 5669(2011).
[CrossRef]

Shin, W.

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B. A. Yu, Y. C. Noh, and T. J. Ahn, Opt. Commun. 283, 2097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suo, R.

X. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, R. Suo, G. D. Peng, and K. Kalli, Proc. SPIE 7503, 750327-1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tan, X. L.

Y. F. Geng, X. J. Li, X. L. Tan, Y. L. Deng, and Y. Q. Yu, IEEE Sensors J. 11, 2891 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. P.

M. Deng, C. P. Tang, T. Zhu, and Y. J. Rao, Opt. Commun. 284, 2849 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Z.

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H.-P. Loock, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1387 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Torres-Gomez, I.

Viegas, J.

Webb, D. J.

X. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, R. Suo, G. D. Peng, and K. Kalli, Proc. SPIE 7503, 750327-1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. C.

Y. Zhou, W. J. Zhou, C. C. Chan, W. C. Wong, L. Y. Shao, J. Cheng, and X. Y. Dong, Opt. Commun. 284, 5669(2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, Y. J. Rao, and Y. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 679 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yam, S. S.-H.

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H.-P. Loock, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1387 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, B. A.

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B. A. Yu, Y. C. Noh, and T. J. Ahn, Opt. Commun. 283, 2097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y. Q.

Y. F. Geng, X. J. Li, X. L. Tan, Y. L. Deng, and Y. Q. Yu, IEEE Sensors J. 11, 2891 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

X. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, R. Suo, G. D. Peng, and K. Kalli, Proc. SPIE 7503, 750327-1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zhao, D. H.

Zhao, T.

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, Y. J. Rao, and Y. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 679 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, K. M.

Zhou, W. J.

Y. Zhou, W. J. Zhou, C. C. Chan, W. C. Wong, L. Y. Shao, J. Cheng, and X. Y. Dong, Opt. Commun. 284, 5669(2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, W. J. Zhou, C. C. Chan, W. C. Wong, L. Y. Shao, J. Cheng, and X. Y. Dong, Opt. Commun. 284, 5669(2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, T.

M. Deng, C. P. Tang, T. Zhu, and Y. J. Rao, Opt. Commun. 284, 2849 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, Y. J. Rao, and Y. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 679 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Gouveia, P. A. S. Jorge, J. M. Baptista, and O. Frazão, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H.-P. Loock, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1387 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sensors J. (1)

Y. F. Geng, X. J. Li, X. L. Tan, Y. L. Deng, and Y. Q. Yu, IEEE Sensors J. 11, 2891 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

I. C. Goyal, R. L. Gallawa, and A. K. Ghatak, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 768 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

M. Deng, C. P. Tang, T. Zhu, and Y. J. Rao, Opt. Commun. 284, 2849 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, W. J. Zhou, C. C. Chan, W. C. Wong, L. Y. Shao, J. Cheng, and X. Y. Dong, Opt. Commun. 284, 5669(2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B. A. Yu, Y. C. Noh, and T. J. Ahn, Opt. Commun. 283, 2097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

X. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, R. Suo, G. D. Peng, and K. Kalli, Proc. SPIE 7503, 750327-1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of the MZI, (b) microscopic image of lateral-offset fusion splicing joint, (c) microscopic image of the up-taper, and (d) transmission spectrum of the fabricated MZI with a lateral-offset of 6.5μm and interference length of 15mm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup for bending measurement.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectral responses of the MZI for different bending orientation: (a) concave bending and (b) convex bending.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Relationship between the applied bending and the wavelength shift of the MZI at (a) loss peak-1 and (b) loss peak-2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Temperature sensitivity measurement for (a) loss peak-1 and (b) loss peak-2.

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