Abstract

Polymeric slot waveguide structure, which pushes the mode field toward the surrounding media, was designed and characterized. The slot waveguide was fabricated by using nanoimprint lithography, and the operation of the slot was demonstrated at 633 nm wavelength with an integrated Young interferometer. The experimental result shows that the nanolithography method provides possibilities to fabricate disposable slot waveguide sensors.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011

2009

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klung, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Barrios, Sensors 9, 4751 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hiltunen, M. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, and P. Karioja, Opt. Express 17, 22813 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2004

V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 29, 1209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, C. B. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

T. D. Visser, B. Demeulenaere, J. Haes, D. Lenstra, R. Baets, and H. Blok, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 885 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Alasaarela, T.

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. B. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 29, 1209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

T. D. Visser, B. Demeulenaere, J. Haes, D. Lenstra, R. Baets, and H. Blok, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 885 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

Barrios, C. B.

V. R. Almeida, C. B. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bernini, R.

Bettotti, P.

P. Bettotti, A. Pitantti, E. Rigo, F. De Leonardis, V. M. N. Passaro, and L. Pavesi, Sensors 11, 7327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Blok, H.

T. D. Visser, B. Demeulenaere, J. Haes, D. Lenstra, R. Baets, and H. Blok, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 885 (1996).
[CrossRef]

De Leonardis, F.

P. Bettotti, A. Pitantti, E. Rigo, F. De Leonardis, V. M. N. Passaro, and L. Pavesi, Sensors 11, 7327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Demeulenaere, B.

T. D. Visser, B. Demeulenaere, J. Haes, D. Lenstra, R. Baets, and H. Blok, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 885 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, D.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klung, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gray, D.

Haes, J.

T. D. Visser, B. Demeulenaere, J. Haes, D. Lenstra, R. Baets, and H. Blok, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 885 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hiltunen, J.

Hiltunen, M.

Honkanen, S.

Kanger, J. S.

J. S. Kanger, V. Subramaniam, P. H. J. Nederkoorn, and A. Ymeti, in Advanced Photonic Structures for Biological and Chemical Detection, X. Fan, ed. (Springer, 2009), pp. 265–295.

Karioja, P.

Karvonen, L.

Klung, M.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klung, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lappalainen, J.

Lenstra, D.

T. D. Visser, B. Demeulenaere, J. Haes, D. Lenstra, R. Baets, and H. Blok, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 885 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liow, T. Y.

Lipson, M.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klung, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, C. B. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 29, 1209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

Moore, S. D.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klung, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nederkoorn, P. H. J.

J. S. Kanger, V. Subramaniam, P. H. J. Nederkoorn, and A. Ymeti, in Advanced Photonic Structures for Biological and Chemical Detection, X. Fan, ed. (Springer, 2009), pp. 265–295.

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. B. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Passaro, V. M. N.

P. Bettotti, A. Pitantti, E. Rigo, F. De Leonardis, V. M. N. Passaro, and L. Pavesi, Sensors 11, 7327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

P. Bettotti, A. Pitantti, E. Rigo, F. De Leonardis, V. M. N. Passaro, and L. Pavesi, Sensors 11, 7327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pegau, W. S.

Pitantti, A.

P. Bettotti, A. Pitantti, E. Rigo, F. De Leonardis, V. M. N. Passaro, and L. Pavesi, Sensors 11, 7327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Puustinen, J.

Rigo, E.

P. Bettotti, A. Pitantti, E. Rigo, F. De Leonardis, V. M. N. Passaro, and L. Pavesi, Sensors 11, 7327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).

Säynätjoki, A.

Schmidt, B. S.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klung, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Subramaniam, V.

J. S. Kanger, V. Subramaniam, P. H. J. Nederkoorn, and A. Ymeti, in Advanced Photonic Structures for Biological and Chemical Detection, X. Fan, ed. (Springer, 2009), pp. 265–295.

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).

Tervonen, A.

Testa, G.

Tu, X.

Visser, T. D.

T. D. Visser, B. Demeulenaere, J. Haes, D. Lenstra, R. Baets, and H. Blok, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 885 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yang, A. H. J.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klung, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ymeti, A.

J. S. Kanger, V. Subramaniam, P. H. J. Nederkoorn, and A. Ymeti, in Advanced Photonic Structures for Biological and Chemical Detection, X. Fan, ed. (Springer, 2009), pp. 265–295.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

Appl. Opt.

J. Lightwave Technol.

T. D. Visser, B. Demeulenaere, J. Haes, D. Lenstra, R. Baets, and H. Blok, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 885 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Testa and R. Bernini, J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2979 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klung, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, C. B. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Sensors

C. A. Barrios, Sensors 9, 4751 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Bettotti, A. Pitantti, E. Rigo, F. De Leonardis, V. M. N. Passaro, and L. Pavesi, Sensors 11, 7327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other

FIMMWAVE software, Photon Design Ltd., Oxford, UK.

Ormocore datasheet, Microresist Technology.

J. S. Kanger, V. Subramaniam, P. H. J. Nederkoorn, and A. Ymeti, in Advanced Photonic Structures for Biological and Chemical Detection, X. Fan, ed. (Springer, 2009), pp. 265–295.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic cross section illustration of the polymer slot waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Percentage of filling factor of TE mode in the slot region with water (a) and air top cladding (b).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Electric field Ex profile of TE-mode in the slot waveguide. (b) Cross-section plot of the Ex field of TE mode indicated as a red line in the 2D plot of the Ex electric field profile. The waveguide dimensions are h=750nm, WR=1μm, WS=100nm, and hR=150nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Microscope image of the fabricated slot Young interferometer. The sensing cell is opened from the Ormostamp overcladding layer. (b) SEM image taken from the beginning of the slot. (c) Cross-section SEM image of the slot. Platinum was deposited on the polymer to improve the quality of the image.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schematic of the measurement setup. Right: Image of the interferogram on a visible-infrared (VIS-IR) camera.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measured and Simulated Phase Shifts

Equations (3)

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fs=SPZ(a)daPZ(a)da,
I=I1+I2+2I1I2cos(Δφδ),
δ=2πLλ0Δneff,

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