Abstract

The sensitive spectroscopic technique noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS) has been successfully used in a variety of systems; however, no broadly tunable setup has been developed for the mid-infrared. To this end, we have integrated a difference frequency generation system into a NICE-OHMS setup. Initial optimization and characterization was completed with ro-vibrational spectroscopy of methane. Doppler-broadened frequency-modulated NICE-OHMS spectra were recorded at a sensitivity of 2×107cm1Hz1/2. Sub-Doppler saturation signals (Lamb dips) were also observed using wavelength-modulated NICE-OHMS, achieving a sensitivity of 6×109cm1Hz1/2.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Ye, “Ultrasensitive high resolution laser spectroscopy and its application to optical frequency standards,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Colorado at Boulder, 1997).
  2. J. Ye, L. Ma, and J. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 6(1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Anzai, X. Gao, H. Sasada, and N. Yoshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2771 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Ma, A. Foltynowicz, and O. Axner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1144 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. Axner, W. Ma, and A. Foltynowicz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1166 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. J. van Leeuwen and A. C. Wilson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1713 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, A. A. Mills, and B. J. McCall, Opt. Express 19, 24822 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. S. Ma, J. Ye, P. Dube, and J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2255 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Ishibashi and H. Sasada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 38, 920 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1392 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, T. Lock, and O. Axner, Opt. Express 15, 10822 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. E. A. Donley, T. P. Heavner, F. Levi, O. Tataw, and S. R. Jefferts, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063112 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, Appl. Phys. B 92, 313 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. A. A. Mills, B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, M. Perera, H. Kreckel, and B. J. McCall, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 224201 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. N. Crabtree, J. N. Hodges, B. M. Siller, A. J. Perry, J. E. Kelly, P. A. Jenkins, and B. J. McCall, “Sub-Doppler mid-infrared spectroscopy of molecular ions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. (to be published).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

J. F. Kelly, R. L. Sams, T. A. Blake, M. Newburn, and J. Moran, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 023101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

A. A. Mills, B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, M. Perera, H. Kreckel, and B. J. McCall, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 224201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, A. A. Mills, and B. J. McCall, Opt. Express 19, 24822 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

K. Anzai, X. Gao, H. Sasada, and N. Yoshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

E. A. Donley, T. P. Heavner, F. Levi, O. Tataw, and S. R. Jefferts, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3457 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. J. van Leeuwen and A. C. Wilson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1713 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

C. Ishibashi and H. Sasada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 38, 920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Ma, J. Ye, P. Dube, and J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2255 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. Ye, L. Ma, and J. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 6(1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

1983 (2)

G. C. Bjorklund and M. D. Levenson, Appl. Phys. B 32, 145 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Anzai, K.

K. Anzai, X. Gao, H. Sasada, and N. Yoshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Axner, O.

Berden, G.

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

Blake, T. A.

J. F. Kelly, R. L. Sams, T. A. Blake, M. Newburn, and J. Moran, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 023101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, B. D.

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3457 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Crabtree, K. N.

K. N. Crabtree, J. N. Hodges, B. M. Siller, A. J. Perry, J. E. Kelly, P. A. Jenkins, and B. J. McCall, “Sub-Doppler mid-infrared spectroscopy of molecular ions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Donley, E. A.

E. A. Donley, T. P. Heavner, F. Levi, O. Tataw, and S. R. Jefferts, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dube, P.

Engeln, R.

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Foltynowicz, A.

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X.

K. Anzai, X. Gao, H. Sasada, and N. Yoshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gehrtz, M.

Hall, J.

Hall, J. L.

L. S. Ma, J. Ye, P. Dube, and J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2255 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Wong and J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1527 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Heavner, T. P.

E. A. Donley, T. P. Heavner, F. Levi, O. Tataw, and S. R. Jefferts, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hodges, J. N.

K. N. Crabtree, J. N. Hodges, B. M. Siller, A. J. Perry, J. E. Kelly, P. A. Jenkins, and B. J. McCall, “Sub-Doppler mid-infrared spectroscopy of molecular ions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ishibashi, C.

C. Ishibashi and H. Sasada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 38, 920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jefferts, S. R.

E. A. Donley, T. P. Heavner, F. Levi, O. Tataw, and S. R. Jefferts, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, P. A.

K. N. Crabtree, J. N. Hodges, B. M. Siller, A. J. Perry, J. E. Kelly, P. A. Jenkins, and B. J. McCall, “Sub-Doppler mid-infrared spectroscopy of molecular ions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, J. E.

K. N. Crabtree, J. N. Hodges, B. M. Siller, A. J. Perry, J. E. Kelly, P. A. Jenkins, and B. J. McCall, “Sub-Doppler mid-infrared spectroscopy of molecular ions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, J. F.

J. F. Kelly, R. L. Sams, T. A. Blake, M. Newburn, and J. Moran, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 023101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kreckel, H.

A. A. Mills, B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, M. Perera, H. Kreckel, and B. J. McCall, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 224201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, M. D.

G. C. Bjorklund and M. D. Levenson, Appl. Phys. B 32, 145 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Levi, F.

E. A. Donley, T. P. Heavner, F. Levi, O. Tataw, and S. R. Jefferts, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lock, T.

Ma, L.

Ma, L. S.

Ma, W.

McCall, B. J.

B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, A. A. Mills, and B. J. McCall, Opt. Express 19, 24822 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Mills, B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, M. Perera, H. Kreckel, and B. J. McCall, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 224201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Crabtree, J. N. Hodges, B. M. Siller, A. J. Perry, J. E. Kelly, P. A. Jenkins, and B. J. McCall, “Sub-Doppler mid-infrared spectroscopy of molecular ions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, G.

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mills, A. A.

A. A. Mills, B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, M. Perera, H. Kreckel, and B. J. McCall, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 224201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, A. A. Mills, and B. J. McCall, Opt. Express 19, 24822 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moran, J.

J. F. Kelly, R. L. Sams, T. A. Blake, M. Newburn, and J. Moran, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 023101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Myers, T. L.

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3457 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Newburn, M.

J. F. Kelly, R. L. Sams, T. A. Blake, M. Newburn, and J. Moran, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 023101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Peeters, R.

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perera, M.

A. A. Mills, B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, M. Perera, H. Kreckel, and B. J. McCall, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 224201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Perry, A. J.

K. N. Crabtree, J. N. Hodges, B. M. Siller, A. J. Perry, J. E. Kelly, P. A. Jenkins, and B. J. McCall, “Sub-Doppler mid-infrared spectroscopy of molecular ions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Porambo, M. W.

A. A. Mills, B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, M. Perera, H. Kreckel, and B. J. McCall, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 224201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, A. A. Mills, and B. J. McCall, Opt. Express 19, 24822 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sams, R. L.

J. F. Kelly, R. L. Sams, T. A. Blake, M. Newburn, and J. Moran, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 023101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sasada, H.

K. Anzai, X. Gao, H. Sasada, and N. Yoshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Ishibashi and H. Sasada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 38, 920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, F. M.

Siller, B. M.

B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, A. A. Mills, and B. J. McCall, Opt. Express 19, 24822 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Mills, B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, M. Perera, H. Kreckel, and B. J. McCall, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 224201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Crabtree, J. N. Hodges, B. M. Siller, A. J. Perry, J. E. Kelly, P. A. Jenkins, and B. J. McCall, “Sub-Doppler mid-infrared spectroscopy of molecular ions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Tataw, O.

E. A. Donley, T. P. Heavner, F. Levi, O. Tataw, and S. R. Jefferts, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taubman, M. S.

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3457 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Leeuwen, N. J.

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, E. A.

Williams, R. M.

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3457 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, A. C.

Wong, N. C.

Ye, J.

L. S. Ma, J. Ye, P. Dube, and J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2255 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L. Ma, and J. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 6(1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, “Ultrasensitive high resolution laser spectroscopy and its application to optical frequency standards,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Colorado at Boulder, 1997).

Yoshida, N.

K. Anzai, X. Gao, H. Sasada, and N. Yoshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

G. C. Bjorklund and M. D. Levenson, Appl. Phys. B 32, 145 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, Appl. Phys. B 92, 313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

A. A. Mills, B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, M. Perera, H. Kreckel, and B. J. McCall, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 224201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (8)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Anzai, X. Gao, H. Sasada, and N. Yoshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 (1)

C. Ishibashi and H. Sasada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 38, 920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (3)

E. A. Donley, T. P. Heavner, F. Levi, O. Tataw, and S. R. Jefferts, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Kelly, R. L. Sams, T. A. Blake, M. Newburn, and J. Moran, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 023101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta A (1)

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3457 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

K. N. Crabtree, J. N. Hodges, B. M. Siller, A. J. Perry, J. E. Kelly, P. A. Jenkins, and B. J. McCall, “Sub-Doppler mid-infrared spectroscopy of molecular ions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, “Ultrasensitive high resolution laser spectroscopy and its application to optical frequency standards,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Colorado at Boulder, 1997).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental layout. FI, Faraday isolator; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; QWP, quarter-wave plate; VCO, voltage controlled oscillator; EOM, electro-optic modulator; PZT, piezoelectric transducer; RF, radio frequency generator; PS, phase shifter; PSD, phase sensitive detector; PPLN, periodically poled lithium niobate crystal; Δ, amplifier.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Doppler-broadened fm-NICE-OHMS dispersion (top) and absorption (bottom) signals from the P(9) A2 transition of the ν3 fundamental band of CH4 at a pressure of 6×105Torr. Raw data are given as dots, fits to the data are given in solid curves. The dispersion curve is offset vertically for clarity.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Center dispersion Lamb dip of the P(12) A1 transition of the ν3 fundamental band of CH4 observed at a pressure of 6×105Torr.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S=y0+A[(χ1absχ1abs)cosθ+(2χ0dispχ1dispχ1disp)sinθ],
χjabs=11+Gex2,
χjdisp=2πex20xet2dt,

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