Abstract

We present a calibration method for measuring the terahertz pulse energy through a conventional thermal power detector. Short terahertz pulses were generated by mechanically modulating a continuous wave source with a chopper containing a narrow slot and detected by a Golay cell. We use a calibrated calorimeter to monitor the total source power so we can know the terahertz pulse energy in advance. The Golay detector response to rectangular pulses is theoretically analyzed and the peak amplitude of its output signal is found to be the relevant parameter to determine the pulse energy. We accomplish absolute calibration for the pulse responsivity of the Golay cell by examining the linear correlation between the output signal and the incident energy.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

C. Ruchert, C. Vicario, and C. P. Hauri, Opt. Lett. 37, 899 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Kaveev, E. G. Kaveeva, and E. A. Adaev, J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 33, 306 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

J. Park, C. Kim, J. Lee, C. Yim, C. H. Kim, J. Lee, S. Jung, J. Ryu, H.-S. Kang, and T. Joo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 013305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, S. Schulz, S. Wesch, S. Wunderlich, A. Cavalleri, and B. Schmidt, Opt. Lett. 36, 4473 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

C. Qi, D. Zuo, Y. Lu, L. Miao, J. Yin, and Z. Cheng, Opt. Laser Eng. 48, 888 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, Opt. Commun. 281, 3567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

M. Tonouchi, Nat. Photonics 1, 97 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H.-C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, Opt. Express 15, 13212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

1972 (1)

A. Shaulov and M. Simhony, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1440(1972).
[CrossRef]

Adaev, E. A.

A. K. Kaveev, E. G. Kaveeva, and E. A. Adaev, J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 33, 306 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Akhmedzhanov, R. A.

Arena, D. A.

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bakunov, M. I.

Bandulet, H.-C.

Blanchard, F.

Bodrov, S. B.

Browne, P.

Carr, G. L.

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cavalleri, A.

Cheng, Z.

C. Qi, D. Zuo, Y. Lu, L. Miao, J. Yin, and Z. Cheng, Opt. Laser Eng. 48, 888 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, R.

Dunn, M.

Edwards, T.

Haugen, H. K.

Hauri, C. P.

Hebling, J.

K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, Opt. Commun. 281, 3567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hegmann, F. A.

Hoffmann, M. C.

M. C. Hoffmann, S. Schulz, S. Wesch, S. Wunderlich, A. Cavalleri, and B. Schmidt, Opt. Lett. 36, 4473 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, Opt. Commun. 281, 3567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ilyakov, I. E.

Joo, T.

J. Park, C. Kim, J. Lee, C. Yim, C. H. Kim, J. Lee, S. Jung, J. Ryu, H.-S. Kang, and T. Joo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 013305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S.

J. Park, C. Kim, J. Lee, C. Yim, C. H. Kim, J. Lee, S. Jung, J. Ryu, H.-S. Kang, and T. Joo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 013305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H.-S.

J. Park, C. Kim, J. Lee, C. Yim, C. H. Kim, J. Lee, S. Jung, J. Ryu, H.-S. Kang, and T. Joo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 013305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C.-C.

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaveev, A. K.

A. K. Kaveev, E. G. Kaveeva, and E. A. Adaev, J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 33, 306 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kaveeva, E. G.

A. K. Kaveev, E. G. Kaveeva, and E. A. Adaev, J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 33, 306 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J.-C.

Kim, C.

J. Park, C. Kim, J. Lee, C. Yim, C. H. Kim, J. Lee, S. Jung, J. Ryu, H.-S. Kang, and T. Joo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 013305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. H.

J. Park, C. Kim, J. Lee, C. Yim, C. H. Kim, J. Lee, S. Jung, J. Ryu, H.-S. Kang, and T. Joo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 013305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. Park, C. Kim, J. Lee, C. Yim, C. H. Kim, J. Lee, S. Jung, J. Ryu, H.-S. Kang, and T. Joo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 013305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Park, C. Kim, J. Lee, C. Yim, C. H. Kim, J. Lee, S. Jung, J. Ryu, H.-S. Kang, and T. Joo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 013305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

C. Qi, D. Zuo, Y. Lu, L. Miao, J. Yin, and Z. Cheng, Opt. Laser Eng. 48, 888 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miao, L.

C. Qi, D. Zuo, Y. Lu, L. Miao, J. Yin, and Z. Cheng, Opt. Laser Eng. 48, 888 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morandotti, R.

Murphy, J. B.

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Naftaly, M.

Nelson, K. A.

K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, Opt. Commun. 281, 3567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, T.

Park, J.

J. Park, C. Kim, J. Lee, C. Yim, C. H. Kim, J. Lee, S. Jung, J. Ryu, H.-S. Kang, and T. Joo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 013305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Qi, C.

C. Qi, D. Zuo, Y. Lu, L. Miao, J. Yin, and Z. Cheng, Opt. Laser Eng. 48, 888 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rae, C.

Razzari, L.

Reid, M.

Ruchert, C.

Ryu, J.

J. Park, C. Kim, J. Lee, C. Yim, C. H. Kim, J. Lee, S. Jung, J. Ryu, H.-S. Kang, and T. Joo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 013305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Schulz, S.

Sharma, G.

Shaulov, A.

A. Shaulov and M. Simhony, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1440(1972).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y.

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shishkin, B. V.

Simhony, M.

A. Shaulov and M. Simhony, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1440(1972).
[CrossRef]

Spurr, M.

Stepanov, A. N.

Tiedje, H. F.

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, Nat. Photonics 1, 97 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, T. Y.

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vicario, C.

Walsh, D.

Wang, X. J.

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wesch, S.

Wunderlich, S.

Yeh, K.-L.

K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, Opt. Commun. 281, 3567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yim, C.

J. Park, C. Kim, J. Lee, C. Yim, C. H. Kim, J. Lee, S. Jung, J. Ryu, H.-S. Kang, and T. Joo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 013305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yin, J.

C. Qi, D. Zuo, Y. Lu, L. Miao, J. Yin, and Z. Cheng, Opt. Laser Eng. 48, 888 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zuo, D.

C. Qi, D. Zuo, Y. Lu, L. Miao, J. Yin, and Z. Cheng, Opt. Laser Eng. 48, 888 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Shaulov and M. Simhony, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1440(1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves (1)

A. K. Kaveev, E. G. Kaveeva, and E. A. Adaev, J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 33, 306 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Tonouchi, Nat. Photonics 1, 97 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, Opt. Commun. 281, 3567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Laser Eng. (1)

C. Qi, D. Zuo, Y. Lu, L. Miao, J. Yin, and Z. Cheng, Opt. Laser Eng. 48, 888 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. Park, C. Kim, J. Lee, C. Yim, C. H. Kim, J. Lee, S. Jung, J. Ryu, H.-S. Kang, and T. Joo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 013305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the experimental setup. PM1, PM2, parabolic mirror; C, chopper; L, high-density polyethylene lens; A, attenuator set; P, wire-grid polarizer; RM, resettable mirror. Inset, front view of the chopper containing a narrow slot with a central angle of α=2πη.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Output waveforms of the Golay cell under four modulation frequencies. The red dashed curve represents a fit to the theoretical model. The waveforms are vertically offset for clarity.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Pulse responsivity of the Golay cell as a function of modulation frequency. The circles with error bars indicate the measured data and the dashed line shows the corresponding theoretical fit.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Peak amplitude of the Golay cell output signal as a function of incident pulse energy at four fixed chopping frequencies. The points with error bars indicate the measured data and the dashed lines show the linear fits. The lines are offset for clarity.

Equations (2)

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US(t)=U0[exp(t/τ1)exp(t/τ2)],
UR(t)=US(t)US(tT).

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