Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a simple and reliable method for fabricating high-quality whispering-gallery mode (WGM) optical microresonators in “mid-IR relevant” low-loss ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN) glasses. Intrinsic quality factors of 107 have been demonstrated, providing great promise for WGM-based mid-IR (MIR) devices. Absorption-limited Q-factors of over 3×108 are anticipated over the 2.0 to 3.2 μm MIR wavelength range in ZBLAN microcavities in the foreseeable future.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. B. Matsko, ed. Practical Applications of Microresonators in Optics and Photonics (CRC, 2009).
  2. F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, Nat. Methods 5, 591 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Lissillour, P. Féron, N. Dubreuil, M. Poulain, and G. M. Stéphan, Electron. Lett. 36, 1382 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Cai, O. Painter, K. J. Vahala, and P. C. Sercel, Opt. Lett. 25, 1430 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. R. Elliot, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, M. N. Zevas, and D. Hewak, Opt. Express 18, 26720 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Lee, T. Chen, L. Jiang, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Nat. Photonics 6, 369 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, N. Picque, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs based on crystalline microresonators,” arXiv:1109.2716 (2011).
  10. J. A. Harrington, Infrared Fibers and Their Applications (SPIE, 2003).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. http://alumnus.caltech.edu/~englund/research/2001_NASA_FinalReport.pdf .
  15. C. Vigreux-Bercovici, L. Labadiea, J. E. Broquinb, P. Kerna, and A. Pradel, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 2625 (2005).
  16. L. J. Moore, D. R. MacFarlane, and P. J. Newman, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 159 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. Qin, Z. X. Shen, B. L. Low, H. K. Lee, T. J. Lu, Y. S. Dai, S. H. Tang, and M. H. Kuok, J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 495 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

H. Lee, T. Chen, L. Jiang, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Nat. Photonics 6, 369 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2008 (1)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, Nat. Methods 5, 591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, L. Labadiea, J. E. Broquinb, P. Kerna, and A. Pradel, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 2625 (2005).

2000 (2)

F. Lissillour, P. Féron, N. Dubreuil, M. Poulain, and G. M. Stéphan, Electron. Lett. 36, 1382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, O. Painter, K. J. Vahala, and P. C. Sercel, Opt. Lett. 25, 1430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

W. Von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, Electron. Lett. 35, 1338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

L. Qin, Z. X. Shen, B. L. Low, H. K. Lee, T. J. Lu, Y. S. Dai, S. H. Tang, and M. H. Kuok, J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1992 (1)

L. J. Moore, D. R. MacFarlane, and P. J. Newman, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, Nat. Methods 5, 591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Broquinb, J. E.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, L. Labadiea, J. E. Broquinb, P. Kerna, and A. Pradel, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 2625 (2005).

Cai, M.

Chen, T.

H. Lee, T. Chen, L. Jiang, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Nat. Photonics 6, 369 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y. S.

L. Qin, Z. X. Shen, B. L. Low, H. K. Lee, T. J. Lu, Y. S. Dai, S. H. Tang, and M. H. Kuok, J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Del’Haye, P.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, N. Picque, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs based on crystalline microresonators,” arXiv:1109.2716 (2011).

Diddams, S. A.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dubreuil, N.

F. Lissillour, P. Féron, N. Dubreuil, M. Poulain, and G. M. Stéphan, Electron. Lett. 36, 1382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Elliot, G. R.

Féron, P.

F. Lissillour, P. Féron, N. Dubreuil, M. Poulain, and G. M. Stéphan, Electron. Lett. 36, 1382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

Hansch, T. W.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, N. Picque, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs based on crystalline microresonators,” arXiv:1109.2716 (2011).

Hare, J.

W. Von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haroche, S.

W. Von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, J. A.

J. A. Harrington, Infrared Fibers and Their Applications (SPIE, 2003).

Herr, T.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, N. Picque, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs based on crystalline microresonators,” arXiv:1109.2716 (2011).

Hewak, D.

Hofer, J.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, N. Picque, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs based on crystalline microresonators,” arXiv:1109.2716 (2011).

Holzwarth, R.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, N. Picque, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs based on crystalline microresonators,” arXiv:1109.2716 (2011).

Ilchenko, V. S.

Jahier, E.

W. Von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jain, R.

Jain, R. K.

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, Electron. Lett. 35, 1338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S.

H. Lee, T. Chen, L. Jiang, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Nat. Photonics 6, 369 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L.

H. Lee, T. Chen, L. Jiang, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Nat. Photonics 6, 369 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kerna, P.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, L. Labadiea, J. E. Broquinb, P. Kerna, and A. Pradel, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 2625 (2005).

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, N. Picque, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs based on crystalline microresonators,” arXiv:1109.2716 (2011).

Kuok, M. H.

L. Qin, Z. X. Shen, B. L. Low, H. K. Lee, T. J. Lu, Y. S. Dai, S. H. Tang, and M. H. Kuok, J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Labadiea, L.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, L. Labadiea, J. E. Broquinb, P. Kerna, and A. Pradel, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 2625 (2005).

Lee, H.

H. Lee, T. Chen, L. Jiang, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Nat. Photonics 6, 369 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. K.

L. Qin, Z. X. Shen, B. L. Low, H. K. Lee, T. J. Lu, Y. S. Dai, S. H. Tang, and M. H. Kuok, J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lefèvre-Seguin, V.

W. Von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lissillour, F.

F. Lissillour, P. Féron, N. Dubreuil, M. Poulain, and G. M. Stéphan, Electron. Lett. 36, 1382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Long, R.

W. Von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Low, B. L.

L. Qin, Z. X. Shen, B. L. Low, H. K. Lee, T. J. Lu, Y. S. Dai, S. H. Tang, and M. H. Kuok, J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. J.

L. Qin, Z. X. Shen, B. L. Low, H. K. Lee, T. J. Lu, Y. S. Dai, S. H. Tang, and M. H. Kuok, J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

MacFarlane, D. R.

L. J. Moore, D. R. MacFarlane, and P. J. Newman, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Moore, L. J.

L. J. Moore, D. R. MacFarlane, and P. J. Newman, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Murugan, G. S.

Newman, P. J.

L. J. Moore, D. R. MacFarlane, and P. J. Newman, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

H. Lee, T. Chen, L. Jiang, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Nat. Photonics 6, 369 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, O. Painter, K. J. Vahala, and P. C. Sercel, Opt. Lett. 25, 1430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Picque, N.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, N. Picque, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs based on crystalline microresonators,” arXiv:1109.2716 (2011).

Poppe, E.

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, Electron. Lett. 35, 1338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Poulain, M.

F. Lissillour, P. Féron, N. Dubreuil, M. Poulain, and G. M. Stéphan, Electron. Lett. 36, 1382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pradel, A.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, L. Labadiea, J. E. Broquinb, P. Kerna, and A. Pradel, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 2625 (2005).

Qin, L.

L. Qin, Z. X. Shen, B. L. Low, H. K. Lee, T. J. Lu, Y. S. Dai, S. H. Tang, and M. H. Kuok, J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, J.-M.

W. Von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Savchenkov, A. A.

Schliesser, A.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, N. Picque, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs based on crystalline microresonators,” arXiv:1109.2716 (2011).

Sercel, P. C.

Shen, Z. X.

L. Qin, Z. X. Shen, B. L. Low, H. K. Lee, T. J. Lu, Y. S. Dai, S. H. Tang, and M. H. Kuok, J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, B.

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, Electron. Lett. 35, 1338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stéphan, G. M.

F. Lissillour, P. Féron, N. Dubreuil, M. Poulain, and G. M. Stéphan, Electron. Lett. 36, 1382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tafoya, J.

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, Electron. Lett. 35, 1338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tang, S. H.

L. Qin, Z. X. Shen, B. L. Low, H. K. Lee, T. J. Lu, Y. S. Dai, S. H. Tang, and M. H. Kuok, J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

H. Lee, T. Chen, L. Jiang, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Nat. Photonics 6, 369 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, O. Painter, K. J. Vahala, and P. C. Sercel, Opt. Lett. 25, 1430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vigreux-Bercovici, C.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, L. Labadiea, J. E. Broquinb, P. Kerna, and A. Pradel, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 2625 (2005).

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, Nat. Methods 5, 591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Von Klitzing, W.

W. Von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. Y.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, N. Picque, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs based on crystalline microresonators,” arXiv:1109.2716 (2011).

Wilkinson, J. S.

Yang, K. Y.

H. Lee, T. Chen, L. Jiang, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Nat. Photonics 6, 369 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zevas, M. N.

Zhu, X.

Electron. Lett. (3)

W. Von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Lissillour, P. Féron, N. Dubreuil, M. Poulain, and G. M. Stéphan, Electron. Lett. 36, 1382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, Electron. Lett. 35, 1338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

L. J. Moore, D. R. MacFarlane, and P. J. Newman, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. (1)

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, L. Labadiea, J. E. Broquinb, P. Kerna, and A. Pradel, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 2625 (2005).

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

L. Qin, Z. X. Shen, B. L. Low, H. K. Lee, T. J. Lu, Y. S. Dai, S. H. Tang, and M. H. Kuok, J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods (1)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, Nat. Methods 5, 591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H. Lee, T. Chen, L. Jiang, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Nat. Photonics 6, 369 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Science (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, N. Picque, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs based on crystalline microresonators,” arXiv:1109.2716 (2011).

J. A. Harrington, Infrared Fibers and Their Applications (SPIE, 2003).

A. B. Matsko, ed. Practical Applications of Microresonators in Optics and Photonics (CRC, 2009).

http://alumnus.caltech.edu/~englund/research/2001_NASA_FinalReport.pdf .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Qualitative temperature-versus-time profiles depicting heating of glasses for microsphere formation. The gray curve corresponds to the thermal “driving function” or the heat source, such as a laser or heater current, and the black curve is the temperature of the glass.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Schematic diagram of the microsphere fabrication process. (b) Micrograph of an optimized ZBLAN microsphere formed at the tip of a ZBLAN fiber.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Top view of the ZBLAN microsphere coupled to a silica fiber taper. (b) Spectrum of TE and TM WGMs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Transmission spectrum of the ZBLAN microsphere around a high-Q WGM in the undercoupled regime. (b) Calculated absorption-limited Q-factor as a function of λ for ZBLAN.

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