Abstract

This Letter introduces an efficient human detection method in thermal images, using a center-symmetric local binary pattern (CS-LBP) with a luminance saliency map and a random forest (RF) classifier scheme. After detecting a candidate human region, we crop only the head and shoulder region, which has a higher thermal spectrum than the legs or trunk. The CS-LBP feature is then extracted from the luminance saliency map of a hotspot and applied to the RF classifier, which is an ensemble of randomized decision trees. We demonstrate that our detection method is more robust than conventional feature descriptors and classifiers in thermal images.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Fernández-Caballero, J. C. Castillo, J. Serrano-Cuerda, and S. Maldonado-Bascón, Expert Syst. Appl. 38, 2577 (2011).
  2. F. Xu, X. Liu, and K. Fujimura, IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst. 6, 63 (2005).
  3. W. Wang, J. Zhang, and C. Shen, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2313–2315.
  4. M. Correa, G. Hermosilla, R. Verschae, and J. Ruiz-Delsolar, J. Intell. & Robotic Syst. 66, 223 (2012).
  5. B. C. Ko and J. Y. Nam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2462 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Heikkilä, M. Pietikäinen, and C. Schmid, Pattern Recogn. 42, 425 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Breiman, J. Mach. Learn. 4, 5 (2001).

2012 (1)

M. Correa, G. Hermosilla, R. Verschae, and J. Ruiz-Delsolar, J. Intell. & Robotic Syst. 66, 223 (2012).

2011 (1)

A. Fernández-Caballero, J. C. Castillo, J. Serrano-Cuerda, and S. Maldonado-Bascón, Expert Syst. Appl. 38, 2577 (2011).

2009 (1)

M. Heikkilä, M. Pietikäinen, and C. Schmid, Pattern Recogn. 42, 425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

F. Xu, X. Liu, and K. Fujimura, IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst. 6, 63 (2005).

2001 (1)

L. Breiman, J. Mach. Learn. 4, 5 (2001).

Breiman, L.

L. Breiman, J. Mach. Learn. 4, 5 (2001).

Castillo, J. C.

A. Fernández-Caballero, J. C. Castillo, J. Serrano-Cuerda, and S. Maldonado-Bascón, Expert Syst. Appl. 38, 2577 (2011).

Correa, M.

M. Correa, G. Hermosilla, R. Verschae, and J. Ruiz-Delsolar, J. Intell. & Robotic Syst. 66, 223 (2012).

Fernández-Caballero, A.

A. Fernández-Caballero, J. C. Castillo, J. Serrano-Cuerda, and S. Maldonado-Bascón, Expert Syst. Appl. 38, 2577 (2011).

Fujimura, K.

F. Xu, X. Liu, and K. Fujimura, IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst. 6, 63 (2005).

Heikkilä, M.

M. Heikkilä, M. Pietikäinen, and C. Schmid, Pattern Recogn. 42, 425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hermosilla, G.

M. Correa, G. Hermosilla, R. Verschae, and J. Ruiz-Delsolar, J. Intell. & Robotic Syst. 66, 223 (2012).

Ko, B. C.

Liu, X.

F. Xu, X. Liu, and K. Fujimura, IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst. 6, 63 (2005).

Maldonado-Bascón, S.

A. Fernández-Caballero, J. C. Castillo, J. Serrano-Cuerda, and S. Maldonado-Bascón, Expert Syst. Appl. 38, 2577 (2011).

Nam, J. Y.

Pietikäinen, M.

M. Heikkilä, M. Pietikäinen, and C. Schmid, Pattern Recogn. 42, 425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ruiz-Delsolar, J.

M. Correa, G. Hermosilla, R. Verschae, and J. Ruiz-Delsolar, J. Intell. & Robotic Syst. 66, 223 (2012).

Schmid, C.

M. Heikkilä, M. Pietikäinen, and C. Schmid, Pattern Recogn. 42, 425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Serrano-Cuerda, J.

A. Fernández-Caballero, J. C. Castillo, J. Serrano-Cuerda, and S. Maldonado-Bascón, Expert Syst. Appl. 38, 2577 (2011).

Shen, C.

W. Wang, J. Zhang, and C. Shen, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2313–2315.

Verschae, R.

M. Correa, G. Hermosilla, R. Verschae, and J. Ruiz-Delsolar, J. Intell. & Robotic Syst. 66, 223 (2012).

Wang, W.

W. Wang, J. Zhang, and C. Shen, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2313–2315.

Xu, F.

F. Xu, X. Liu, and K. Fujimura, IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst. 6, 63 (2005).

Zhang, J.

W. Wang, J. Zhang, and C. Shen, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2313–2315.

Expert Syst. Appl. (1)

A. Fernández-Caballero, J. C. Castillo, J. Serrano-Cuerda, and S. Maldonado-Bascón, Expert Syst. Appl. 38, 2577 (2011).

IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst. (1)

F. Xu, X. Liu, and K. Fujimura, IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst. 6, 63 (2005).

J. Intell. & Robotic Syst. (1)

M. Correa, G. Hermosilla, R. Verschae, and J. Ruiz-Delsolar, J. Intell. & Robotic Syst. 66, 223 (2012).

J. Mach. Learn. (1)

L. Breiman, J. Mach. Learn. 4, 5 (2001).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Pattern Recogn. (1)

M. Heikkilä, M. Pietikäinen, and C. Schmid, Pattern Recogn. 42, 425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

W. Wang, J. Zhang, and C. Shen, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2313–2315.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Candidate hotspot detection and luminance saliency map (LSM) generation on enlarged hotspot regions: (a) input thermal image, (b) image binarization, (c) enlarged hotspots, and (d) LSM of hotspots.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Representation of CS-LBP histogram generation from LSM. Local CS-LBP histograms are generated from 4×4 nonoverlapping cells. Then all local histograms are concatenated to create the final CS-LBP histogram.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Human detection results using thermal images at nighttime and in indoor environments using the proposed method.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Performance comparison results of HOG+RF, CS-LBP+RF without LSM, Gray+SVM [2], and the proposed method.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(x,y)={255ifI(x,y)>T1(Iμ+k·Iσ)0otherwise.
LSM=s{2×2,3×3}L(c,s).
s(x)={1x>T20otherwise,
CS-LBPR,N(x,y)=i=0(N/2)1s(nini+(N/2))2i,
RF={ht(x)},t=1,,N.

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