Abstract

We report on the first observation of optically excited surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in the conducting phase of vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films. VO2 is low-loss optical material that undergoes an insulator-metal transition (IMT) under suitable thermal, optical, or electrical stimulation, thus enabling tunable SPP excitation of the conducting phase. Here we applied IR light (1520 nm) to excite SPPs while thermally inducing the IMT by changing the VO2 temperature, and observed a clear trend from nonabsorption in the insulator phase to high absorption in the conducting phase due to SPP excitation in the latter phase. Tunable SPPs in VO2 enable a range of opportunities for low-loss optoplasmonic applications since the rate of the IMT excitation can also be tailored.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

K. Manthiram and A. P. Alivisatos, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 3995 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Kriegel, C. Y. Jiang, J. Rodriguez-Fernandez, R. D. Schaller, D. V. Talapin, E. da Como, and J. Feldmann, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 1583 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, C. Clavero, K. Yang, E. Radue, M. T. Simons, I. Novikova, and R. A. Lukaszew, Opt. Express 20, 8618 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

L. Wang, C. Clavero, Z. Huba, K. J. Carroll, E. E. Carpenter, D. F. Gu, and R. A. Lukaszew, Nano Lett. 11, 1237 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Won, Nat. Photonics 5, 139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Boltasseva and H. A. Atwater, Science 331, 290 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2008 (3)

Z. Wu, R. L. Nelson, J. W. Haus, and Q. Zhan, Opt. Lett. 33, 551 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lappalainen, S. Heinilehto, S. Saukko, V. Lantto, and H. Jantunen, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 142, 250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. G. West, J. Lu, J. Yu, D. Kirkwood, W. Chen, Y. Pei, J. Claassen, and S. A. Wolf, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A: Vac. Surf. Films 26, 133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

C. Rhodes, S. Franzen, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. N. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Weibel, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 054905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. Siders, J. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. Kieffer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Schubert, Phys. Rev. B 53, 4265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

A. Zylbersztejn and N. F. Mott, Phys. Rev. B 11, 4383 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Pettit, J. Silcox, and R. Vincent, Phys. Rev. B 11, 3116 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1968 (2)

H. W. Verleur, A. S. Barker, and C. N. Berglund, Phys. Rev. 172, 788 (1968).
[CrossRef]

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 2135 (1968).

Alivisatos, A. P.

K. Manthiram and A. P. Alivisatos, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 3995 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

A. Boltasseva and H. A. Atwater, Science 331, 290 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barker, A. S.

H. W. Verleur, A. S. Barker, and C. N. Berglund, Phys. Rev. 172, 788 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Berglund, C. N.

H. W. Verleur, A. S. Barker, and C. N. Berglund, Phys. Rev. 172, 788 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Berini, P.

Boltasseva, A.

A. Boltasseva and H. A. Atwater, Science 331, 290 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Breukelaar, I.

Carpenter, E. E.

L. Wang, C. Clavero, Z. Huba, K. J. Carroll, E. E. Carpenter, D. F. Gu, and R. A. Lukaszew, Nano Lett. 11, 1237 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, K. J.

L. Wang, C. Clavero, Z. Huba, K. J. Carroll, E. E. Carpenter, D. F. Gu, and R. A. Lukaszew, Nano Lett. 11, 1237 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cavalleri, A.

A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. Siders, J. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. Kieffer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

K. G. West, J. Lu, J. Yu, D. Kirkwood, W. Chen, Y. Pei, J. Claassen, and S. A. Wolf, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A: Vac. Surf. Films 26, 133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Claassen, J.

K. G. West, J. Lu, J. Yu, D. Kirkwood, W. Chen, Y. Pei, J. Claassen, and S. A. Wolf, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A: Vac. Surf. Films 26, 133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clavero, C.

L. Wang, C. Clavero, K. Yang, E. Radue, M. T. Simons, I. Novikova, and R. A. Lukaszew, Opt. Express 20, 8618 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, C. Clavero, Z. Huba, K. J. Carroll, E. E. Carpenter, D. F. Gu, and R. A. Lukaszew, Nano Lett. 11, 1237 (2011).
[CrossRef]

da Como, E.

I. Kriegel, C. Y. Jiang, J. Rodriguez-Fernandez, R. D. Schaller, D. V. Talapin, E. da Como, and J. Feldmann, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 1583 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Duscher, G.

C. Rhodes, S. Franzen, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. N. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Weibel, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 054905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

I. Kriegel, C. Y. Jiang, J. Rodriguez-Fernandez, R. D. Schaller, D. V. Talapin, E. da Como, and J. Feldmann, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 1583 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Forget, P.

A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. Siders, J. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. Kieffer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Franzen, S.

C. Rhodes, S. Franzen, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. N. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Weibel, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 054905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gu, D. F.

L. Wang, C. Clavero, Z. Huba, K. J. Carroll, E. E. Carpenter, D. F. Gu, and R. A. Lukaszew, Nano Lett. 11, 1237 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Haus, J. W.

Heinilehto, S.

J. Lappalainen, S. Heinilehto, S. Saukko, V. Lantto, and H. Jantunen, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 142, 250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huba, Z.

L. Wang, C. Clavero, Z. Huba, K. J. Carroll, E. E. Carpenter, D. F. Gu, and R. A. Lukaszew, Nano Lett. 11, 1237 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jantunen, H.

J. Lappalainen, S. Heinilehto, S. Saukko, V. Lantto, and H. Jantunen, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 142, 250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, C. Y.

I. Kriegel, C. Y. Jiang, J. Rodriguez-Fernandez, R. D. Schaller, D. V. Talapin, E. da Como, and J. Feldmann, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 1583 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J.

A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. Siders, J. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. Kieffer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kirkwood, D.

K. G. West, J. Lu, J. Yu, D. Kirkwood, W. Chen, Y. Pei, J. Claassen, and S. A. Wolf, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A: Vac. Surf. Films 26, 133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 2135 (1968).

Kriegel, I.

I. Kriegel, C. Y. Jiang, J. Rodriguez-Fernandez, R. D. Schaller, D. V. Talapin, E. da Como, and J. Feldmann, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 1583 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lantto, V.

J. Lappalainen, S. Heinilehto, S. Saukko, V. Lantto, and H. Jantunen, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 142, 250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lappalainen, J.

J. Lappalainen, S. Heinilehto, S. Saukko, V. Lantto, and H. Jantunen, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 142, 250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laughlin, B.

C. Rhodes, S. Franzen, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. N. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Weibel, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 054905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leonard, D. N.

C. Rhodes, S. Franzen, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. N. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Weibel, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 054905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Losego, M.

C. Rhodes, S. Franzen, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. N. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Weibel, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 054905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

K. G. West, J. Lu, J. Yu, D. Kirkwood, W. Chen, Y. Pei, J. Claassen, and S. A. Wolf, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A: Vac. Surf. Films 26, 133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lukaszew, R. A.

L. Wang, C. Clavero, K. Yang, E. Radue, M. T. Simons, I. Novikova, and R. A. Lukaszew, Opt. Express 20, 8618 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, C. Clavero, Z. Huba, K. J. Carroll, E. E. Carpenter, D. F. Gu, and R. A. Lukaszew, Nano Lett. 11, 1237 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Manthiram, K.

K. Manthiram and A. P. Alivisatos, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 3995 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Maria, J. P.

C. Rhodes, S. Franzen, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. N. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Weibel, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 054905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mott, N. F.

A. Zylbersztejn and N. F. Mott, Phys. Rev. B 11, 4383 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, R. L.

Novikova, I.

Pei, Y.

K. G. West, J. Lu, J. Yu, D. Kirkwood, W. Chen, Y. Pei, J. Claassen, and S. A. Wolf, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A: Vac. Surf. Films 26, 133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pettit, R. B.

R. B. Pettit, J. Silcox, and R. Vincent, Phys. Rev. B 11, 3116 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Radue, E.

Raether, H.

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 2135 (1968).

Ráksi, F.

A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. Siders, J. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. Kieffer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, C.

C. Rhodes, S. Franzen, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. N. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Weibel, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 054905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez-Fernandez, J.

I. Kriegel, C. Y. Jiang, J. Rodriguez-Fernandez, R. D. Schaller, D. V. Talapin, E. da Como, and J. Feldmann, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 1583 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Saukko, S.

J. Lappalainen, S. Heinilehto, S. Saukko, V. Lantto, and H. Jantunen, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 142, 250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scales, C.

Schaller, R. D.

I. Kriegel, C. Y. Jiang, J. Rodriguez-Fernandez, R. D. Schaller, D. V. Talapin, E. da Como, and J. Feldmann, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 1583 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M.

M. Schubert, Phys. Rev. B 53, 4265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Siders, C.

A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. Siders, J. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. Kieffer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Silcox, J.

R. B. Pettit, J. Silcox, and R. Vincent, Phys. Rev. B 11, 3116 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Simons, M. T.

Squier, J.

A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. Siders, J. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. Kieffer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Talapin, D. V.

I. Kriegel, C. Y. Jiang, J. Rodriguez-Fernandez, R. D. Schaller, D. V. Talapin, E. da Como, and J. Feldmann, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 1583 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tóth, C.

A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. Siders, J. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. Kieffer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Verleur, H. W.

H. W. Verleur, A. S. Barker, and C. N. Berglund, Phys. Rev. 172, 788 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vincent, R.

R. B. Pettit, J. Silcox, and R. Vincent, Phys. Rev. B 11, 3116 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, C. Clavero, K. Yang, E. Radue, M. T. Simons, I. Novikova, and R. A. Lukaszew, Opt. Express 20, 8618 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, C. Clavero, Z. Huba, K. J. Carroll, E. E. Carpenter, D. F. Gu, and R. A. Lukaszew, Nano Lett. 11, 1237 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Weibel, S.

C. Rhodes, S. Franzen, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. N. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Weibel, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 054905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

West, K. G.

K. G. West, J. Lu, J. Yu, D. Kirkwood, W. Chen, Y. Pei, J. Claassen, and S. A. Wolf, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A: Vac. Surf. Films 26, 133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, S. A.

K. G. West, J. Lu, J. Yu, D. Kirkwood, W. Chen, Y. Pei, J. Claassen, and S. A. Wolf, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A: Vac. Surf. Films 26, 133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Won, R.

R. Won, Nat. Photonics 5, 139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

Yang, K.

Yu, J.

K. G. West, J. Lu, J. Yu, D. Kirkwood, W. Chen, Y. Pei, J. Claassen, and S. A. Wolf, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A: Vac. Surf. Films 26, 133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, Q.

Zylbersztejn, A.

A. Zylbersztejn and N. F. Mott, Phys. Rev. B 11, 4383 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

K. Manthiram and A. P. Alivisatos, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 3995 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Kriegel, C. Y. Jiang, J. Rodriguez-Fernandez, R. D. Schaller, D. V. Talapin, E. da Como, and J. Feldmann, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 1583 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Rhodes, S. Franzen, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. N. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Weibel, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 054905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A: Vac. Surf. Films (1)

K. G. West, J. Lu, J. Yu, D. Kirkwood, W. Chen, Y. Pei, J. Claassen, and S. A. Wolf, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A: Vac. Surf. Films 26, 133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

L. Wang, C. Clavero, Z. Huba, K. J. Carroll, E. E. Carpenter, D. F. Gu, and R. A. Lukaszew, Nano Lett. 11, 1237 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. Won, Nat. Photonics 5, 139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

H. W. Verleur, A. S. Barker, and C. N. Berglund, Phys. Rev. 172, 788 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

M. Schubert, Phys. Rev. B 53, 4265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Zylbersztejn and N. F. Mott, Phys. Rev. B 11, 4383 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Pettit, J. Silcox, and R. Vincent, Phys. Rev. B 11, 3116 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. Siders, J. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. Kieffer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. Boltasseva and H. A. Atwater, Science 331, 290 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

J. Lappalainen, S. Heinilehto, S. Saukko, V. Lantto, and H. Jantunen, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 142, 250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Naturforsch. A (1)

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 2135 (1968).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) XRD θ 2 θ scans for VO 2 thin films on c - Al 2 O 3 substrates with different film thicknesses. A single phase VO 2 (020) was observed. The dashed vertical line shows the position of the bulk VO 2 (020) peak. (b) XRD phi scans of the (110) planes of the 50 nm-thick VO 2 thin film and the (2204) planes of the Al 2 O 3 substrate. (c) AFM image of the 50 nm-thick VO 2 film surface.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Temperature dependence of the IR transmittance at λ = 1520 nm (a) and resistivity (b) of three VO 2 thin films with different film thicknesses.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Dispersion relation curves of SPPs at the VO 2 / air interface with (solid) and without (dash) damping. The shadowed region is bounded by the light lines in air and in glass. Dispersion relations are plotted versus the real part of the in-plane wave vector k . (b) Schematic of SPPs measurement setup using Kretschmann configuration combined with a heater.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental (a) and simulated (b) reflectance of a 50 nm VO 2 thin film illuminated in the IR region as a function of temperature and incident angle. A high absorption is observed at high temperature due to SPP excitation in the metallic state.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental (a) and simulated (b) angular dependence of the reflectance for VO 2 thin films with thicknesses ranging from 50 to 100 nm. Experimental reflectance and simulation results of c - Al 2 O 3 substrate are also included as comparisons. The absorption due to SPPs of thinner films (50 and 71.5 nm) is stronger than that of thicker film (100 nm).

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