Abstract

The cladding air channels of an endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and the high-index sensitivity of its long-period gratings (LPG) inscribed by CO2 laser have been exploited to deposit poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVPON)/poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) polyelectrolyte thin films via layer-by-layer assembly (LbL) and to measure the deposition process. We show that LbL can be controllably carried out within the axially aligned air channels. PCF-LPG is highly sensitive to the LbL process as reflected by 1.625nm shift in the resonance wavelength per polyelectrolyte layer incorporated. PCF-LPG is also very robust for in situ monitoring of the release of PVPON from cross-linked polyelectrolytes, which results in the formation of pH-responsive PMAA hydrogel. PCF-LPG containing the hydrogel exhibits well-behaved response to changes in solution pH over 2 to 7.5. We demonstrate that PCF-LPG is 2 orders of magnitude more sensitive than its traditional all-solid counterpart through parallel investigation.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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C. Carrasquilla, Y. Xiao, C. Q. Xu, Y. Li, and J. D. Brennan, Anal. Chem. 83, 7984 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. He, F. Tian, Y. Zhu, N. Lavlinskaia, and H. Du, Biosens. Bioelectron. 26, 4774 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. P. DeRocher, P. Mao, J. Han, M. F. Rubner, and R. E. Cohen, Macromolecules 43, 2430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Pavlukhina, Y. Lu, A. Patimetha, M. Libera, and S. Sukhishvili, Biomacromolecules 11, 3448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. K. Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, Adv. Mater. 22, 2647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. K. Oo, Y. Han, J. Kanka, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, Opt. Lett. 35, 466 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. Yan, J. Liu, C. Yang, G. Jin, C. Gu, and L. Hou, Opt. Express 16, 8300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, H. A. McKay, and L. Fu, Opt. Lett. 33, 2440 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Rindorf and O. Bang, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, Z. He, J. Kanka, and H. Du, Sens. Actuators B 129, 99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Kharlampieva, V. Kozlovskaya, J. F. Ankner, and S. A. Sukhishvili, Langmuir 24, 11346 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. He, Y. Zhu, and H. Du, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 044105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. Lee, A. J. Nolte, A. L. Kunz, M. F. Rubner, and R. E. Cohen, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 8521 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Rindorf, P. E. Hłiby, J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, O. Bang, and O. Geschke, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 1370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. C. Knight, Nature 424, 847 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

1999

1998

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992

G. Decher, J. D. Hong, and J. Schmitt, Thin Solid Films 210, 831 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, T.-J.

Ankner, J. F.

E. Kharlampieva, V. Kozlovskaya, J. F. Ankner, and S. A. Sukhishvili, Langmuir 24, 11346 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

R. Rindorf and O. Bang, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Rindorf, P. E. Hłiby, J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, O. Bang, and O. Geschke, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 1370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brennan, J. D.

C. Carrasquilla, Y. Xiao, C. Q. Xu, Y. Li, and J. D. Brennan, Anal. Chem. 83, 7984 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Broeng, J.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carrasquilla, C.

C. Carrasquilla, Y. Xiao, C. Q. Xu, Y. Li, and J. D. Brennan, Anal. Chem. 83, 7984 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

Cohen, R. E.

J. P. DeRocher, P. Mao, J. Han, M. F. Rubner, and R. E. Cohen, Macromolecules 43, 2430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Lee, A. J. Nolte, A. L. Kunz, M. F. Rubner, and R. E. Cohen, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 8521 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Decher, G.

G. Decher, J. D. Hong, and J. Schmitt, Thin Solid Films 210, 831 (1992).
[CrossRef]

DeRocher, J. P.

J. P. DeRocher, P. Mao, J. Han, M. F. Rubner, and R. E. Cohen, Macromolecules 43, 2430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

Du, H.

Z. He, F. Tian, Y. Zhu, N. Lavlinskaia, and H. Du, Biosens. Bioelectron. 26, 4774 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. K. Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, Adv. Mater. 22, 2647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. K. Oo, Y. Han, J. Kanka, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, Opt. Lett. 35, 466 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, Z. He, J. Kanka, and H. Du, Sens. Actuators B 129, 99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. He, Y. Zhu, and H. Du, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 044105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Fu, L.

Geschke, O.

L. Rindorf, P. E. Hłiby, J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, O. Bang, and O. Geschke, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 1370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gu, C.

Han, J.

J. P. DeRocher, P. Mao, J. Han, M. F. Rubner, and R. E. Cohen, Macromolecules 43, 2430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, W.-T.

Han, Y.

M. K. K. Oo, Y. Han, J. Kanka, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, Opt. Lett. 35, 466 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. K. Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, Adv. Mater. 22, 2647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

He, Z.

Z. He, F. Tian, Y. Zhu, N. Lavlinskaia, and H. Du, Biosens. Bioelectron. 26, 4774 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. He, Y. Zhu, and H. Du, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 044105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, Z. He, J. Kanka, and H. Du, Sens. Actuators B 129, 99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hliby, P. E.

L. Rindorf, P. E. Hłiby, J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, O. Bang, and O. Geschke, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 1370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hong, J. D.

G. Decher, J. D. Hong, and J. Schmitt, Thin Solid Films 210, 831 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hou, L.

Jensen, J. B.

L. Rindorf, P. E. Hłiby, J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, O. Bang, and O. Geschke, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 1370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jin, G.

Kanka, J.

M. K. K. Oo, Y. Han, J. Kanka, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, Opt. Lett. 35, 466 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, Z. He, J. Kanka, and H. Du, Sens. Actuators B 129, 99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kharlampieva, E.

E. Kharlampieva, V. Kozlovskaya, J. F. Ankner, and S. A. Sukhishvili, Langmuir 24, 11346 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. H.

Kim, D. Y.

Knight, J. C.

J. C. Knight, Nature 424, 847 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kozlovskaya, V.

E. Kharlampieva, V. Kozlovskaya, J. F. Ankner, and S. A. Sukhishvili, Langmuir 24, 11346 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, A. L.

D. Lee, A. J. Nolte, A. L. Kunz, M. F. Rubner, and R. E. Cohen, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 8521 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lavlinskaia, N.

Z. He, F. Tian, Y. Zhu, N. Lavlinskaia, and H. Du, Biosens. Bioelectron. 26, 4774 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

Lee, D.

D. Lee, A. J. Nolte, A. L. Kunz, M. F. Rubner, and R. E. Cohen, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 8521 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

C. Carrasquilla, Y. Xiao, C. Q. Xu, Y. Li, and J. D. Brennan, Anal. Chem. 83, 7984 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Libera, M.

S. Pavlukhina, Y. Lu, A. Patimetha, M. Libera, and S. Sukhishvili, Biomacromolecules 11, 3448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Lu, Y.

S. Pavlukhina, Y. Lu, A. Patimetha, M. Libera, and S. Sukhishvili, Biomacromolecules 11, 3448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mao, P.

J. P. DeRocher, P. Mao, J. Han, M. F. Rubner, and R. E. Cohen, Macromolecules 43, 2430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McKay, H. A.

Nolte, A. J.

D. Lee, A. J. Nolte, A. L. Kunz, M. F. Rubner, and R. E. Cohen, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 8521 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oo, M. K. K.

M. K. K. Oo, Y. Han, J. Kanka, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, Opt. Lett. 35, 466 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. K. Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, Adv. Mater. 22, 2647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U. C.

Park, Y.

Patimetha, A.

S. Pavlukhina, Y. Lu, A. Patimetha, M. Libera, and S. Sukhishvili, Biomacromolecules 11, 3448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pavlukhina, S.

S. Pavlukhina, Y. Lu, A. Patimetha, M. Libera, and S. Sukhishvili, Biomacromolecules 11, 3448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, L. H.

L. Rindorf, P. E. Hłiby, J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, O. Bang, and O. Geschke, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 1370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pristinski, D.

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. K. Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, Adv. Mater. 22, 2647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rindorf, L.

L. Rindorf, P. E. Hłiby, J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, O. Bang, and O. Geschke, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 1370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rindorf, R.

Rubner, M. F.

J. P. DeRocher, P. Mao, J. Han, M. F. Rubner, and R. E. Cohen, Macromolecules 43, 2430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Lee, A. J. Nolte, A. L. Kunz, M. F. Rubner, and R. E. Cohen, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 8521 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J.

G. Decher, J. D. Hong, and J. Schmitt, Thin Solid Films 210, 831 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Spalter, S.

Strasser, T. A.

Sukhishvili, S.

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. K. Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, Adv. Mater. 22, 2647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. K. Oo, Y. Han, J. Kanka, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, Opt. Lett. 35, 466 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Pavlukhina, Y. Lu, A. Patimetha, M. Libera, and S. Sukhishvili, Biomacromolecules 11, 3448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sukhishvili, S. A.

E. Kharlampieva, V. Kozlovskaya, J. F. Ankner, and S. A. Sukhishvili, Langmuir 24, 11346 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tan, S.

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. K. Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, Adv. Mater. 22, 2647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tian, F.

Z. He, F. Tian, Y. Zhu, N. Lavlinskaia, and H. Du, Biosens. Bioelectron. 26, 4774 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, P. S.

Windeler, R. S.

Xiao, Y.

C. Carrasquilla, Y. Xiao, C. Q. Xu, Y. Li, and J. D. Brennan, Anal. Chem. 83, 7984 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C. Q.

C. Carrasquilla, Y. Xiao, C. Q. Xu, Y. Li, and J. D. Brennan, Anal. Chem. 83, 7984 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.

Yang, C.

Zhu, Y.

Z. He, F. Tian, Y. Zhu, N. Lavlinskaia, and H. Du, Biosens. Bioelectron. 26, 4774 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. He, Y. Zhu, and H. Du, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 044105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, Z. He, J. Kanka, and H. Du, Sens. Actuators B 129, 99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. K. Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, Adv. Mater. 22, 2647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

L. Rindorf, P. E. Hłiby, J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, O. Bang, and O. Geschke, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 1370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

C. Carrasquilla, Y. Xiao, C. Q. Xu, Y. Li, and J. D. Brennan, Anal. Chem. 83, 7984 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Z. He, Y. Zhu, and H. Du, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 044105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biomacromolecules

S. Pavlukhina, Y. Lu, A. Patimetha, M. Libera, and S. Sukhishvili, Biomacromolecules 11, 3448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron.

Z. He, F. Tian, Y. Zhu, N. Lavlinskaia, and H. Du, Biosens. Bioelectron. 26, 4774 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

D. Lee, A. J. Nolte, A. L. Kunz, M. F. Rubner, and R. E. Cohen, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 8521 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Langmuir

E. Kharlampieva, V. Kozlovskaya, J. F. Ankner, and S. A. Sukhishvili, Langmuir 24, 11346 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules

J. P. DeRocher, P. Mao, J. Han, M. F. Rubner, and R. E. Cohen, Macromolecules 43, 2430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. C. Knight, Nature 424, 847 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

Y. Zhu, Z. He, J. Kanka, and H. Du, Sens. Actuators B 129, 99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

G. Decher, J. D. Hong, and J. Schmitt, Thin Solid Films 210, 831 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic and (b) transmission spectrum of PCF-LPG, (c) optically coupled microfluidic module for LbL in PCF-LPG and in situ transmission measurements.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Procedures of LbL deposition of PVPON/PMAA and formation of PMAA hydrogel in PCF-LPG with BPEI/PMAA as adhesion bilayer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Respective RW shifts in response to LbL assembly of PVPON and PMMA in PCF-LPG and on COF-LPG. Insets are the corresponding transmission spectra.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic of PVPON release from LbL film and time-dependent shift in RW in PCF-LPG.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

pH-dependent transmission and RW shift for PCF-LPG and COF-LPG coated with PMAA hydrogels.

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