Abstract

Achieving photoacoustic microscopic imaging through a miniaturized scanning head is a crucial step toward high-resolution photoacoustic endoscopy. In this work, we have developed a miniaturized probe head using a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based mirror for raster scan of the laser beam and our newly developed super broad bandwidth microring resonator based ultrasound detector for photoacoustic signal detection. Through this all-optical design, which offers unique advantages for endoscopic applications, this system is capable of three-dimensional (3D) imaging with high resolution of 17.5 μm in lateral direction and 20 μm in axial direction at a distance of 3.7 mm. After the performance of this system was validated through the experiments on printed grids and a resolution test target, microscopic imaging of the 3D microvasculatures in canine bladders was also conducted successfully, demonstrating the potential of novel photoacoustic endoscopic in future clinical management of bladder cancer.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012

J. Yao, C.-H. Huang, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 080505, (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

S.-L. Chen, T. Ling, H. W. Baac, and L. J. Guo, Proc. SPIE 7899, 78992T (2011).

Z. Xie, S.-L. Chen, T. Ling, L. J. Guo, P. L. Carson, and X. Wang, Opt. Express 19, 9027 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

Y. Yuan, S. Yang, and D. Xing, Opt. Lett. 35, 2266 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Xi, J. Sun, Y. Zhu, L. Wu, H. Xie, and H. Jiang, Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 1278 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu, and E. Ward, CA-Cancer J. Clin. 60, 277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Zee, J. P. B. O’Connor, G. J. M. Parker, A. Jackson, A. R. Clamp, M. B. Taylor, N. W. Clarke, and G. C. Jayson, Nat. Rev. Urol. 7, 69 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2007

C.-Y. Chao, S. Ashkenazi, S.-W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, and L. J. Guo, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 957 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

E. B. C. Avritscher, C. D. Cooksley, H. B. Grossman, A. L. Sabichi, L. Hamblin, C. P. Dinney, and L. S. Elting, Urology 68, 549 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. F. Botteman, C. L. Pashos, A. Redaelli, B. Laskin, and R. Hauser, Pharmacoeconomics 21, 1315 (2003).

1995

B. H. Bochner, R. J. Cote, N. Weidner, S. Groshen, S.-C. Chen, D. G. Skinner, and P. W. Nichols, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 87, 1603 (1995).

Ashkenazi, S.

C.-Y. Chao, S. Ashkenazi, S.-W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, and L. J. Guo, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 957 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Avritscher, E. B. C.

E. B. C. Avritscher, C. D. Cooksley, H. B. Grossman, A. L. Sabichi, L. Hamblin, C. P. Dinney, and L. S. Elting, Urology 68, 549 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baac, H. W.

S.-L. Chen, T. Ling, H. W. Baac, and L. J. Guo, Proc. SPIE 7899, 78992T (2011).

Bochner, B. H.

B. H. Bochner, R. J. Cote, N. Weidner, S. Groshen, S.-C. Chen, D. G. Skinner, and P. W. Nichols, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 87, 1603 (1995).

Botteman, M. F.

M. F. Botteman, C. L. Pashos, A. Redaelli, B. Laskin, and R. Hauser, Pharmacoeconomics 21, 1315 (2003).

Carson, P. L.

Chao, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chao, S. Ashkenazi, S.-W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, and L. J. Guo, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 957 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-C.

B. H. Bochner, R. J. Cote, N. Weidner, S. Groshen, S.-C. Chen, D. G. Skinner, and P. W. Nichols, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 87, 1603 (1995).

Chen, S.-L.

Z. Xie, S.-L. Chen, T. Ling, L. J. Guo, P. L. Carson, and X. Wang, Opt. Express 19, 9027 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Chen, T. Ling, H. W. Baac, and L. J. Guo, Proc. SPIE 7899, 78992T (2011).

Clamp, A. R.

Y.-K. Zee, J. P. B. O’Connor, G. J. M. Parker, A. Jackson, A. R. Clamp, M. B. Taylor, N. W. Clarke, and G. C. Jayson, Nat. Rev. Urol. 7, 69 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, N. W.

Y.-K. Zee, J. P. B. O’Connor, G. J. M. Parker, A. Jackson, A. R. Clamp, M. B. Taylor, N. W. Clarke, and G. C. Jayson, Nat. Rev. Urol. 7, 69 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cooksley, C. D.

E. B. C. Avritscher, C. D. Cooksley, H. B. Grossman, A. L. Sabichi, L. Hamblin, C. P. Dinney, and L. S. Elting, Urology 68, 549 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cote, R. J.

B. H. Bochner, R. J. Cote, N. Weidner, S. Groshen, S.-C. Chen, D. G. Skinner, and P. W. Nichols, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 87, 1603 (1995).

Dinney, C. P.

E. B. C. Avritscher, C. D. Cooksley, H. B. Grossman, A. L. Sabichi, L. Hamblin, C. P. Dinney, and L. S. Elting, Urology 68, 549 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elting, L. S.

E. B. C. Avritscher, C. D. Cooksley, H. B. Grossman, A. L. Sabichi, L. Hamblin, C. P. Dinney, and L. S. Elting, Urology 68, 549 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gao, L.

J. Yao, C.-H. Huang, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 080505, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Groshen, S.

B. H. Bochner, R. J. Cote, N. Weidner, S. Groshen, S.-C. Chen, D. G. Skinner, and P. W. Nichols, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 87, 1603 (1995).

Grossman, H. B.

E. B. C. Avritscher, C. D. Cooksley, H. B. Grossman, A. L. Sabichi, L. Hamblin, C. P. Dinney, and L. S. Elting, Urology 68, 549 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

Z. Xie, S.-L. Chen, T. Ling, L. J. Guo, P. L. Carson, and X. Wang, Opt. Express 19, 9027 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Chen, T. Ling, H. W. Baac, and L. J. Guo, Proc. SPIE 7899, 78992T (2011).

C.-Y. Chao, S. Ashkenazi, S.-W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, and L. J. Guo, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 957 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hamblin, L.

E. B. C. Avritscher, C. D. Cooksley, H. B. Grossman, A. L. Sabichi, L. Hamblin, C. P. Dinney, and L. S. Elting, Urology 68, 549 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hauser, R.

M. F. Botteman, C. L. Pashos, A. Redaelli, B. Laskin, and R. Hauser, Pharmacoeconomics 21, 1315 (2003).

Huang, C.-H.

J. Yao, C.-H. Huang, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 080505, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.-W.

C.-Y. Chao, S. Ashkenazi, S.-W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, and L. J. Guo, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 957 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, A.

Y.-K. Zee, J. P. B. O’Connor, G. J. M. Parker, A. Jackson, A. R. Clamp, M. B. Taylor, N. W. Clarke, and G. C. Jayson, Nat. Rev. Urol. 7, 69 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jayson, G. C.

Y.-K. Zee, J. P. B. O’Connor, G. J. M. Parker, A. Jackson, A. R. Clamp, M. B. Taylor, N. W. Clarke, and G. C. Jayson, Nat. Rev. Urol. 7, 69 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jemal, A.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu, and E. Ward, CA-Cancer J. Clin. 60, 277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

Laskin, B.

M. F. Botteman, C. L. Pashos, A. Redaelli, B. Laskin, and R. Hauser, Pharmacoeconomics 21, 1315 (2003).

Ling, T.

S.-L. Chen, T. Ling, H. W. Baac, and L. J. Guo, Proc. SPIE 7899, 78992T (2011).

Z. Xie, S.-L. Chen, T. Ling, L. J. Guo, P. L. Carson, and X. Wang, Opt. Express 19, 9027 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maslov, K.

Maslov, K. I.

J. Yao, C.-H. Huang, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 080505, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nichols, P. W.

B. H. Bochner, R. J. Cote, N. Weidner, S. Groshen, S.-C. Chen, D. G. Skinner, and P. W. Nichols, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 87, 1603 (1995).

O’Connor, J. P. B.

Y.-K. Zee, J. P. B. O’Connor, G. J. M. Parker, A. Jackson, A. R. Clamp, M. B. Taylor, N. W. Clarke, and G. C. Jayson, Nat. Rev. Urol. 7, 69 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O’Donnell, M.

C.-Y. Chao, S. Ashkenazi, S.-W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, and L. J. Guo, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 957 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Parker, G. J. M.

Y.-K. Zee, J. P. B. O’Connor, G. J. M. Parker, A. Jackson, A. R. Clamp, M. B. Taylor, N. W. Clarke, and G. C. Jayson, Nat. Rev. Urol. 7, 69 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pashos, C. L.

M. F. Botteman, C. L. Pashos, A. Redaelli, B. Laskin, and R. Hauser, Pharmacoeconomics 21, 1315 (2003).

Redaelli, A.

M. F. Botteman, C. L. Pashos, A. Redaelli, B. Laskin, and R. Hauser, Pharmacoeconomics 21, 1315 (2003).

Sabichi, A. L.

E. B. C. Avritscher, C. D. Cooksley, H. B. Grossman, A. L. Sabichi, L. Hamblin, C. P. Dinney, and L. S. Elting, Urology 68, 549 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shung, K. K.

Siegel, R.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu, and E. Ward, CA-Cancer J. Clin. 60, 277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, D. G.

B. H. Bochner, R. J. Cote, N. Weidner, S. Groshen, S.-C. Chen, D. G. Skinner, and P. W. Nichols, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 87, 1603 (1995).

Sun, J.

Taylor, M. B.

Y.-K. Zee, J. P. B. O’Connor, G. J. M. Parker, A. Jackson, A. R. Clamp, M. B. Taylor, N. W. Clarke, and G. C. Jayson, Nat. Rev. Urol. 7, 69 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

J. Yao, C.-H. Huang, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 080505, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

J. Yao, C.-H. Huang, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 080505, (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Yang, K. Maslov, H.-C. Yang, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 34, 1591 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Wang, ed., in Photoacoustic Imaging and Spectroscopy (Taylor & Francis/CRC Press, 2009).

Wang, X.

Ward, E.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu, and E. Ward, CA-Cancer J. Clin. 60, 277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weidner, N.

B. H. Bochner, R. J. Cote, N. Weidner, S. Groshen, S.-C. Chen, D. G. Skinner, and P. W. Nichols, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 87, 1603 (1995).

Wu, L.

Xi, L.

Xie, H.

Xie, Z.

Xing, D.

Xu, J.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu, and E. Ward, CA-Cancer J. Clin. 60, 277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.-C.

Yang, J.-M.

J. Yao, C.-H. Huang, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 080505, (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Yang, K. Maslov, H.-C. Yang, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 34, 1591 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

Yao, J.

J. Yao, C.-H. Huang, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 080505, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Y.

Zee, Y.-K.

Y.-K. Zee, J. P. B. O’Connor, G. J. M. Parker, A. Jackson, A. R. Clamp, M. B. Taylor, N. W. Clarke, and G. C. Jayson, Nat. Rev. Urol. 7, 69 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q.

Zhu, Y.

Zou, J.

J. Yao, C.-H. Huang, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 080505, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express

CA-Cancer J. Clin.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu, and E. Ward, CA-Cancer J. Clin. 60, 277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control

C.-Y. Chao, S. Ashkenazi, S.-W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, and L. J. Guo, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 957 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. Yao, C.-H. Huang, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 080505, (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Natl. Cancer Inst.

B. H. Bochner, R. J. Cote, N. Weidner, S. Groshen, S.-C. Chen, D. G. Skinner, and P. W. Nichols, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 87, 1603 (1995).

Nat. Rev. Urol.

Y.-K. Zee, J. P. B. O’Connor, G. J. M. Parker, A. Jackson, A. R. Clamp, M. B. Taylor, N. W. Clarke, and G. C. Jayson, Nat. Rev. Urol. 7, 69 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Pharmacoeconomics

M. F. Botteman, C. L. Pashos, A. Redaelli, B. Laskin, and R. Hauser, Pharmacoeconomics 21, 1315 (2003).

Proc. SPIE

S.-L. Chen, T. Ling, H. W. Baac, and L. J. Guo, Proc. SPIE 7899, 78992T (2011).

Urology

E. B. C. Avritscher, C. D. Cooksley, H. B. Grossman, A. L. Sabichi, L. Hamblin, C. P. Dinney, and L. S. Elting, Urology 68, 549 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. V. Wang, ed., in Photoacoustic Imaging and Spectroscopy (Taylor & Francis/CRC Press, 2009).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of MEMS-based PAM system. (b) A photograph of the MEMS mirror. (c) The calibrated response of mirror tilt angle versus applied voltages.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) MAP image of a printed mesh grid. (b) A-line photoacoustic signal and its amplitude after the Hilbert transform. (c) The MAP image of a USAF resolution test target. (d) 1D profile plotted along the lines marked in (c).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Anatomical photograph of the inner wall of a canine bladder. (b) MAP images on the XY and XZ planes of the microvasculature in the bladder wall obtained by microring detectors. (c) MAP images of the same area acquired by the needle hydrophone. All images share the same scale bar as shown in the left-upper image.

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