Abstract

A chip-scale optical source with integrated beam steering is demonstrated. The chip was fabricated using the hybrid silicon platform and incorporates an on-chip laser, waveguide splitter, amplifiers, phase modulators, and surface gratings to comprise an optical phased array with beam steering across a 12° field of view in one axis. Tuning of the phased array is used to achieve 1.8°(steered axis)×0.6°(nonsteered axis) beam width with 7 dB background suppression for arbitrary beam direction within the field of view.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

2009 (3)

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 15, 535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. K. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, X. Huikai, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 97, 1078 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Van Acoleyen, W. Bogaerts, J. Jágerská, N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 34, 1477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

R. Jones, J. K. Doylend, P. Ebrahimi, S. Ayotte, O. Raday, and O. Cohen, Opt. Express 15, 15836 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, Y.-H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2002 (1)

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 600 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Ayotte, S.

Baets, R.

Bogaerts, W.

Bos, P. J.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. K. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, X. Huikai, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 97, 1078 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bovington, J. T.

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 19, 21595 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OM2J.1.

Bowers, J. E.

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 19, 21595 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 15, 535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, Y.-H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 600 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OM2J.1.

Boyd, R. W.

Chen, R. T.

D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

H. Park, Y.-H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Jones, J. K. Doylend, P. Ebrahimi, S. Ayotte, O. Raday, and O. Cohen, Opt. Express 15, 15836 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

Doylend, J. K.

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 19, 21595 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Jones, J. K. Doylend, P. Ebrahimi, S. Ayotte, O. Raday, and O. Cohen, Opt. Express 15, 15836 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OM2J.1.

Ebrahimi, P.

Escuti, M. K.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. K. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, X. Huikai, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 97, 1078 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A. W.

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 15, 535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, Y.-H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heck, M. J. R.

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 19, 21595 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OM2J.1.

Heikenfeld, J.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. K. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, X. Huikai, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 97, 1078 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, C. J.

Hosseini, A.

D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Houdré, R.

Huikai, X.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. K. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, X. Huikai, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 97, 1078 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jágerská, J.

Jones, R.

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 15, 535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Jones, J. K. Doylend, P. Ebrahimi, S. Ayotte, O. Raday, and O. Cohen, Opt. Express 15, 15836 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, Y.-H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koch, B. R.

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 15, 535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 15, 535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-H.

H. Park, Y.-H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D.

D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Le Thomas, N.

Leyva, D. G.

Liang, D.

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 15, 535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 600 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lively, E.

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 15, 535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mark, M. B.

McManamon, P. F.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. K. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, X. Huikai, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 97, 1078 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Overbeck, J. A.

Paniccia, M. J.

H. Park, Y.-H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

H. Park, Y.-H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peters, J. D.

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 19, 21595 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OM2J.1.

Raday, O.

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 15, 535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Jones, J. K. Doylend, P. Ebrahimi, S. Ayotte, O. Raday, and O. Cohen, Opt. Express 15, 15836 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rogier, H.

Salisbury, M. S.

Schweinsberg, A.

Serati, S.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. K. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, X. Huikai, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 97, 1078 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shakouri, A.

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 600 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Z.

Sysak, M. N.

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 15, 535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van Acoleyen, K.

Vornehm, J. E.

Watson, E. A.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. K. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, X. Huikai, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 97, 1078 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Overbeck, M. S. Salisbury, M. B. Mark, and E. A. Watson, Appl. Opt. 34, 7724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, T. D.

Zhang, Y.

D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. (1)

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 15, 535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. Park, Y.-H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 600 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. K. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, X. Huikai, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 97, 1078 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OM2J.1.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematics (not to scale) of the overall device (left), cross-section of the gain elements (right top), and cross-section of the phase modulators (right bottom). QW=quantum wells, Si=silicon, BOX=buried oxide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Normalized far field beam cross-sections measured for beam positions from ϕ=6° to ϕ=6° at 1° increments (top), and relative beam power measured versus preamplifier current (bottom). The inset shows variation of beam power with steering angle for constant preamplifier current.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured far-field beam cross-sections in ϕ (left) and θ (right) of the far field beam for the phased-array solution at ϕ=0°. The discrepancy between measured and modeled side-lobe position was attributed to lens Seidel aberrations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical spectrum (resolution: 40 MHz) of the free-space ouput demonstrating single wavelength operation (inset: right) from the on-chip source laser (inset: left).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Normalized measurements of (a) the on-chip photocurrent from the preamplifier held at 3V bias, (b) power coupled to a Newport 818 power meter using the far field imaging system, and (c) peak signal fiber-coupled to the APEX 2541 OSA.

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