Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate dispersion engineering of slow light photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides using selective infiltration of the first two rows of air holes with high index ionic liquids. The infiltrated PhC waveguide exhibits a dispersion window of 3 nm with a nearly constant group velocity of c/80 that depends on the liquid physical properties. We investigate how the effective refractive index changes in time due to the dynamics of the liquids in the holes. This demonstration highlights the versatility, flexibility, and tunability offered by optofluidics in PhC circuits.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Baba, Nat. Photonics 2, 465 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Husko, T. D. Vo, B. Corcoran, J. Li, T. F. Krauss, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 19, 12555 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Y. Petrov and M. Eich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4866 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Li, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, A. Gomez-Iglesias, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 16, 6227 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, C. Monat, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 17, 1628 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photonics 1, 106 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Erickson, T. Rockwood, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Lett. 31, 59 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Grillet, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Karnutsch, and B. J. Eggleton, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 192 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Casas-Bedoya, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, C. Monat, E. C. Mägi, E. Li, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 20, 11046 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Casas-Bedoya, C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Opt. 50, 2408 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Gomez-Iglesias, D. O’Brien, L. O’Faolain, A. Miller, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett 90, 261107 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Schulz, D. Beggs, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, Phys. Rev. B 80, 1 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. D. Tran, S. H. D. E. P. Lacerda, and D. Oliveira, Appl. Spectrosc. 57, 2 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Blown, C. Fisher, F. J. Lawrence, N. Gutman, and C. M. de Sterke, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 10, 478 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. N. Decerbo, “1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(pentafluoroethylsulfonyl)imide based ionic electromechanical properties,” Master’s thesis (Wright State University, 2008).

2012 (2)

P. Blown, C. Fisher, F. J. Lawrence, N. Gutman, and C. M. de Sterke, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 10, 478 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Casas-Bedoya, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, C. Monat, E. C. Mägi, E. Li, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 20, 11046 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

A. Casas-Bedoya, C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Opt. 50, 2408 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Husko, T. D. Vo, B. Corcoran, J. Li, T. F. Krauss, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 19, 12555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

C. Grillet, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Karnutsch, and B. J. Eggleton, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 192 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Schulz, D. Beggs, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, Phys. Rev. B 80, 1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, C. Monat, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 17, 1628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

A. Gomez-Iglesias, D. O’Brien, L. O’Faolain, A. Miller, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett 90, 261107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photonics 1, 106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Erickson, T. Rockwood, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Lett. 31, 59 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Y. Petrov and M. Eich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4866 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. D. Tran, S. H. D. E. P. Lacerda, and D. Oliveira, Appl. Spectrosc. 57, 2 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

T. Baba, Nat. Photonics 2, 465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beggs, D.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Schulz, D. Beggs, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, Phys. Rev. B 80, 1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bettotti, P.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blown, P.

P. Blown, C. Fisher, F. J. Lawrence, N. Gutman, and C. M. de Sterke, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 10, 478 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Casas-Bedoya, A.

Colocci, M.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Corcoran, B.

C. Husko, T. D. Vo, B. Corcoran, J. Li, T. F. Krauss, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 19, 12555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C. M.

P. Blown, C. Fisher, F. J. Lawrence, N. Gutman, and C. M. de Sterke, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 10, 478 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Decerbo, J. N.

J. N. Decerbo, “1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(pentafluoroethylsulfonyl)imide based ionic electromechanical properties,” Master’s thesis (Wright State University, 2008).

Domachuk, P.

Ebnali-Heidari, M.

Eggleton, B. J.

A. Casas-Bedoya, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, C. Monat, E. C. Mägi, E. Li, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 20, 11046 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Husko, T. D. Vo, B. Corcoran, J. Li, T. F. Krauss, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 19, 12555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Casas-Bedoya, C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Opt. 50, 2408 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Grillet, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Karnutsch, and B. J. Eggleton, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 192 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, C. Monat, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 17, 1628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photonics 1, 106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eich, M.

A. Y. Petrov and M. Eich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4866 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Emery, T.

Erickson, D.

Fisher, C.

P. Blown, C. Fisher, F. J. Lawrence, N. Gutman, and C. M. de Sterke, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 10, 478 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gomez-Iglesias, A.

J. Li, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, A. Gomez-Iglesias, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 16, 6227 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Gomez-Iglesias, D. O’Brien, L. O’Faolain, A. Miller, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett 90, 261107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grillet, C.

Gutman, N.

P. Blown, C. Fisher, F. J. Lawrence, N. Gutman, and C. M. de Sterke, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 10, 478 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, S.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Schulz, D. Beggs, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, Phys. Rev. B 80, 1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Husko, C.

C. Husko, T. D. Vo, B. Corcoran, J. Li, T. F. Krauss, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 19, 12555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Intonti, F.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karnutsch, C.

C. Grillet, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Karnutsch, and B. J. Eggleton, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 192 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Schulz, D. Beggs, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, Phys. Rev. B 80, 1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

C. Husko, T. D. Vo, B. Corcoran, J. Li, T. F. Krauss, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 19, 12555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, A. Gomez-Iglesias, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 16, 6227 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Gomez-Iglesias, D. O’Brien, L. O’Faolain, A. Miller, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett 90, 261107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lacerda, S. H. D. E. P.

C. D. Tran, S. H. D. E. P. Lacerda, and D. Oliveira, Appl. Spectrosc. 57, 2 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, F. J.

P. Blown, C. Fisher, F. J. Lawrence, N. Gutman, and C. M. de Sterke, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 10, 478 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. W.

C. Grillet, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Karnutsch, and B. J. Eggleton, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 192 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, E.

Li, J.

C. Husko, T. D. Vo, B. Corcoran, J. Li, T. F. Krauss, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 19, 12555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, A. Gomez-Iglesias, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 16, 6227 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mägi, E. C.

Miller, A.

A. Gomez-Iglesias, D. O’Brien, L. O’Faolain, A. Miller, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett 90, 261107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Monat, C.

O’Brien, D.

A. Gomez-Iglesias, D. O’Brien, L. O’Faolain, A. Miller, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett 90, 261107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O’Faolain, L.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Schulz, D. Beggs, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, Phys. Rev. B 80, 1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, A. Gomez-Iglesias, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 16, 6227 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Gomez-Iglesias, D. O’Brien, L. O’Faolain, A. Miller, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett 90, 261107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, D.

C. D. Tran, S. H. D. E. P. Lacerda, and D. Oliveira, Appl. Spectrosc. 57, 2 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, M.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Schulz, D. Beggs, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, Phys. Rev. B 80, 1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, A. Y.

A. Y. Petrov and M. Eich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4866 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

Rockwood, T.

Scherer, A.

Schulz, S.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Schulz, D. Beggs, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, Phys. Rev. B 80, 1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, S. L.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. L.

C. Grillet, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Karnutsch, and B. J. Eggleton, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 192 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tomljenovic-Hanic, S.

C. Grillet, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Karnutsch, and B. J. Eggleton, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 192 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tran, C. D.

C. D. Tran, S. H. D. E. P. Lacerda, and D. Oliveira, Appl. Spectrosc. 57, 2 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Türck, V.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vignolini, S.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vo, T. D.

C. Husko, T. D. Vo, B. Corcoran, J. Li, T. F. Krauss, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 19, 12555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wehrspohn, R.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

White, T.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Schulz, D. Beggs, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, Phys. Rev. B 80, 1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

White, T. P.

Wiersma, D.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett (1)

A. Gomez-Iglesias, D. O’Brien, L. O’Faolain, A. Miller, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett 90, 261107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Y. Petrov and M. Eich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4866 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

C. D. Tran, S. H. D. E. P. Lacerda, and D. Oliveira, Appl. Spectrosc. 57, 2 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

C. Grillet, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Karnutsch, and B. J. Eggleton, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 192 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

T. Baba, Nat. Photonics 2, 465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photonics 1, 106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. (1)

P. Blown, C. Fisher, F. J. Lawrence, N. Gutman, and C. M. de Sterke, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 10, 478 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Schulz, D. Beggs, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, Phys. Rev. B 80, 1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. N. Decerbo, “1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(pentafluoroethylsulfonyl)imide based ionic electromechanical properties,” Master’s thesis (Wright State University, 2008).

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Three-dimensional schematic representation of an optofluidic slow light dispersion engineered PhC waveguide created by selective infiltration.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Shape adopted by the liquid inside the PhC hole (left) and corresponding (equivalent) effective refractive index n eff (right). (b) Transmission and group index measurements for an uninfiltrated (blue-red) and fully infiltrated (dark blue-magenta) W0.9 PhC waveguide. (c) Cutoff wavelength evolution for a fully infiltrated PhC waveguide (inset) and calculated dispersion for a fully infiltrated PhC waveguide using various n eff .

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Microscope image of a selective infiltrated W0.8 PhC waveguide. (b, top) Measured group index evolution of the structure presented in (a). (b, bottom) Theoretical calculation of the same structure showing the change in effective index due to the liquid water absorption.

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