Abstract

Codoping with Zr4+ ions enhances the 1.54 μm emission in Yb/Er:LiNbO3 crystal by about three times. Optical damage resistant Zr4+ ion increases the maximum phonon energy of Er:LiNbO3 host, which is favorable for the nonradiative relaxation from I11/24 to I13/24 state (Er). The time decay spectra show that the incorporation of Zr4+ ions leads to a shortening lifetime of I11/24 state (Er), increasing the nonradiative relaxation rate of I11/24I13/24 (Er) in Yb/Er:LiNbO3. The 1.54 μm emission enhancement is important to telecommunication application.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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A. Li, L. Sun, Z. Zheng, Q. Lü, W. Wu, W. Liu, Y. Yang, and T. Lü, Appl. Phys. B 90, 29 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

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I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, Ch. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K.-H. Müller, Th. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, Appl. Phys. A 64, 33 (1996).
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Chen, H. J.

Chen, S. L.

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[CrossRef]

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I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, Ch. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K.-H. Müller, Th. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, Appl. Phys. A 64, 33 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922 (1997).
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I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, Ch. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K.-H. Müller, Th. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, Appl. Phys. A 64, 33 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Giaquinto, A.

Gog, Th.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, Ch. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K.-H. Müller, Th. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, Appl. Phys. A 64, 33 (1996).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Koike, Y.

Kong, Y. F.

W. B. Yan, L. H. Shi, H. J. Chen, X. Z. Zhang, and Y. F. Kong, Opt. Lett. 35, 601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Y. F. Kong, S. G. Liu, Y. J. Zhao, H. D. Liu, S. L. Chen, and J. J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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A. Li, L. Sun, Z. Zheng, Q. Lü, W. Wu, W. Liu, Y. Yang, and T. Lü, Appl. Phys. B 90, 29 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Materlik, G.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, Ch. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K.-H. Müller, Th. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, Appl. Phys. A 64, 33 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Müller, K.-H.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, Ch. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K.-H. Müller, Th. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, Appl. Phys. A 64, 33 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, Ch. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K.-H. Müller, Th. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, Appl. Phys. A 64, 33 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pilipenko, O. V.

Polman, A.

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prudenzano, F.

Pryalkin, V. I.

Pun, E. Y. B.

D. L. Zhang, P. Zhang, W. H. Wong, and E. Y. B. Pun, Cryst. Growth Des. 8, 2121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, H. L.

Rai, S. B.

V. K. Rai and S. B. Rai, Solid State Commun. 132, 647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rai, V. K.

V. K. Rai and S. B. Rai, Solid State Commun. 132, 647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rubinina, N. M.

Shi, L. H.

Shur, J. W.

J. W. Shur, K. H. Choi, and D. H. Yoon, J. Cryst. Growth 318, 653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, Ch. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K.-H. Müller, Th. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, Appl. Phys. A 64, 33 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stolz, H.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, Ch. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K.-H. Müller, Th. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, Appl. Phys. A 64, 33 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stone, G.

P. Capek, G. Stone, V. Dierolf, C. Althouse, and V. Gopolan, Phys. Stat. Sol. C 4, 830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L.

G. Y. Chen, L. M. Yang, C. Xu, S. W. Hao, H. L. Qiu, L. Sun, Y. H. Xu, and C. H. Yang, Opt. Lett. 37, 1268 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Li, L. Sun, Z. Zheng, Q. Lü, W. Wu, W. Liu, Y. Yang, and T. Lü, Appl. Phys. B 90, 29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tagaya, A.

Tolstik, N. A.

Volk, T. R.

von der Osten, W.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, Ch. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K.-H. Müller, Th. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, Appl. Phys. A 64, 33 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. F.

Wen, J. K.

Witte, O.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, Ch. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K.-H. Müller, Th. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, Appl. Phys. A 64, 33 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. H.

D. L. Zhang, P. Zhang, W. H. Wong, and E. Y. B. Pun, Cryst. Growth Des. 8, 2121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.

A. Li, L. Sun, Z. Zheng, Q. Lü, W. Wu, W. Liu, Y. Yang, and T. Lü, Appl. Phys. B 90, 29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

Xu, J. J.

Y. F. Kong, S. G. Liu, Y. J. Zhao, H. D. Liu, S. L. Chen, and J. J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y. H.

Yan, W. B.

Yan, Y. C.

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. H.

Yang, L. M.

Yang, Y.

A. Li, L. Sun, Z. Zheng, Q. Lü, W. Wu, W. Liu, Y. Yang, and T. Lü, Appl. Phys. B 90, 29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, D. H.

J. W. Shur, K. H. Choi, and D. H. Yoon, J. Cryst. Growth 318, 653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yoshinaga, T.

Zhang, D. L.

D. L. Zhang, P. Zhang, W. H. Wong, and E. Y. B. Pun, Cryst. Growth Des. 8, 2121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Y.

Zhang, P.

D. L. Zhang, P. Zhang, W. H. Wong, and E. Y. B. Pun, Cryst. Growth Des. 8, 2121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W. L.

Zhang, X. Z.

Zhao, Y. J.

Y. F. Kong, S. G. Liu, Y. J. Zhao, H. D. Liu, S. L. Chen, and J. J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z.

A. Li, L. Sun, Z. Zheng, Q. Lü, W. Wu, W. Liu, Y. Yang, and T. Lü, Appl. Phys. B 90, 29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, Ch. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K.-H. Müller, Th. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, Appl. Phys. A 64, 33 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Li, L. Sun, Z. Zheng, Q. Lü, W. Wu, W. Liu, Y. Yang, and T. Lü, Appl. Phys. B 90, 29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. F. Kong, J. K. Wen, and H. F. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Kong, S. G. Liu, Y. J. Zhao, H. D. Liu, S. L. Chen, and J. J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Growth Des. (1)

D. L. Zhang, P. Zhang, W. H. Wong, and E. Y. B. Pun, Cryst. Growth Des. 8, 2121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

J. W. Shur, K. H. Choi, and D. H. Yoon, J. Cryst. Growth 318, 653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Stat. Sol. C (1)

P. Capek, G. Stone, V. Dierolf, C. Althouse, and V. Gopolan, Phys. Stat. Sol. C 4, 830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

V. K. Rai and S. B. Rai, Solid State Commun. 132, 647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Near infrared emission spectra of Zr/Yb/Er-4/1/1 and Yb/Er-1/1 under 980 nm excitation. The inset is the 1.54 μm emission spectra of Zr/Er-4/1 and Er-1 crystals.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Raman spectra of Zr/Er-4/1 and Er-1 crystals at room temperature.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Energy levels of Er 3 + and Yb 3 + ions, as well as upconversion mechanism under 980 nm excitation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Decay profiles of I 11 / 2 4 I 15 / 2 4 transition of Er 3 + ion at 1020 nm in Zr/Yb/Er-4/1/1 and Yb/Er-1/1 crystals. The inset is near infrared emission spectra of Zr/Yb/Er-4/1/1 and Er-1 in the range from 900 to 1100 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

UV-vis-near infrared absorption spectra of Yb/Er-1/1 and Zr/Yb/Er-4/1/1 crystals.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Content of Er 3 + , Yb 3 + , and Zr 4 + Ion in Melt/Crystal

Equations (1)

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W N = 1 τ meas 1 τ rad ,

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