Abstract

Multiple color states have been realized in single unit cell using double electrochromic (EC) reaction. The precise control of bistability in EC compounds which can maintain several colors on the two separated electrodes allows this new type of pixel to be realized. The specific electrical driving gives a way to maintain both sides in the reduced EC states and this colors overlapping in the vertical view direction can achieve the black state. The four color states (G, B, W, BK) in one cell/pixel can make a valuable progress to achieve a high quality color devices such like electronic paper, outdoor billboard, smart window and flexible display using external light source.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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2011 (1)

2010 (1)

J. E. Jang, G. H. Lee, K. Y. Hwang, B. G. Song, J. W. Kim, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and J. E. Jung, SID Symp. Tech. Dig. 41, 575 (2010).

2008 (1)

N. Kobayashi, S. Miura, M. Nishimura, and H. Urano, Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 92, 136 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

I. Shiyanovskaya, A. Khan, S. Green, G. Magyar, and J. W. Doane, SID Symp. Tech. Dig. 36, 1556 (2005).

2004 (2)

2001 (2)

M. Gratzel, Nature 409, 575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Prins, W. J. J. Welters, and J. W. Weekamp, Science 291, 277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. Comiskey, J. D. Albert, H. Yoshizawa, and J. Jacobson, Nature 394, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J. D.

B. Comiskey, J. D. Albert, H. Yoshizawa, and J. Jacobson, Nature 394, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Comiskey, B.

B. Comiskey, J. D. Albert, H. Yoshizawa, and J. Jacobson, Nature 394, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Doane, J. W.

I. Shiyanovskaya, A. Khan, S. Green, G. Magyar, and J. W. Doane, SID Symp. Tech. Dig. 36, 1556 (2005).

Gally, B. J.

B. J. Gally, SID Symp. Tech. Dig. 35, 654 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gratzel, M.

M. Gratzel, Nature 409, 575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Green, S.

I. Shiyanovskaya, A. Khan, S. Green, G. Magyar, and J. W. Doane, SID Symp. Tech. Dig. 36, 1556 (2005).

Hwang, K. Y.

G. H. Lee, K. Y. Hwang, J. E. Jang, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and J. E. Jung, Opt. Lett. 36, 754 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Jang, G. H. Lee, K. Y. Hwang, B. G. Song, J. W. Kim, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and J. E. Jung, SID Symp. Tech. Dig. 41, 575 (2010).

Jacobson, J.

B. Comiskey, J. D. Albert, H. Yoshizawa, and J. Jacobson, Nature 394, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J. E.

G. H. Lee, K. Y. Hwang, J. E. Jang, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and J. E. Jung, Opt. Lett. 36, 754 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Jang, G. H. Lee, K. Y. Hwang, B. G. Song, J. W. Kim, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and J. E. Jung, SID Symp. Tech. Dig. 41, 575 (2010).

Jin, Y. W.

G. H. Lee, K. Y. Hwang, J. E. Jang, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and J. E. Jung, Opt. Lett. 36, 754 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Jang, G. H. Lee, K. Y. Hwang, B. G. Song, J. W. Kim, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and J. E. Jung, SID Symp. Tech. Dig. 41, 575 (2010).

Jung, J. E.

G. H. Lee, K. Y. Hwang, J. E. Jang, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and J. E. Jung, Opt. Lett. 36, 754 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Jang, G. H. Lee, K. Y. Hwang, B. G. Song, J. W. Kim, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and J. E. Jung, SID Symp. Tech. Dig. 41, 575 (2010).

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I. Shiyanovskaya, A. Khan, S. Green, G. Magyar, and J. W. Doane, SID Symp. Tech. Dig. 36, 1556 (2005).

Kim, J. W.

J. E. Jang, G. H. Lee, K. Y. Hwang, B. G. Song, J. W. Kim, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and J. E. Jung, SID Symp. Tech. Dig. 41, 575 (2010).

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N. Kobayashi, S. Miura, M. Nishimura, and H. Urano, Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 92, 136 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G. H.

G. H. Lee, K. Y. Hwang, J. E. Jang, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and J. E. Jung, Opt. Lett. 36, 754 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Jang, G. H. Lee, K. Y. Hwang, B. G. Song, J. W. Kim, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and J. E. Jung, SID Symp. Tech. Dig. 41, 575 (2010).

Lee, S. Y.

G. H. Lee, K. Y. Hwang, J. E. Jang, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and J. E. Jung, Opt. Lett. 36, 754 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Jang, G. H. Lee, K. Y. Hwang, B. G. Song, J. W. Kim, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and J. E. Jung, SID Symp. Tech. Dig. 41, 575 (2010).

Magyar, G.

I. Shiyanovskaya, A. Khan, S. Green, G. Magyar, and J. W. Doane, SID Symp. Tech. Dig. 36, 1556 (2005).

Miura, S.

N. Kobayashi, S. Miura, M. Nishimura, and H. Urano, Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 92, 136 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, M.

N. Kobayashi, S. Miura, M. Nishimura, and H. Urano, Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 92, 136 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prins, M. W.

M. W. Prins, W. J. J. Welters, and J. W. Weekamp, Science 291, 277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ramsey, R. A.

Sharma, S. C.

Shiyanovskaya, I.

I. Shiyanovskaya, A. Khan, S. Green, G. Magyar, and J. W. Doane, SID Symp. Tech. Dig. 36, 1556 (2005).

Song, B. G.

J. E. Jang, G. H. Lee, K. Y. Hwang, B. G. Song, J. W. Kim, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and J. E. Jung, SID Symp. Tech. Dig. 41, 575 (2010).

Urano, H.

N. Kobayashi, S. Miura, M. Nishimura, and H. Urano, Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 92, 136 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weekamp, J. W.

M. W. Prins, W. J. J. Welters, and J. W. Weekamp, Science 291, 277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Welters, W. J. J.

M. W. Prins, W. J. J. Welters, and J. W. Weekamp, Science 291, 277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yoshizawa, H.

B. Comiskey, J. D. Albert, H. Yoshizawa, and J. Jacobson, Nature 394, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

B. Comiskey, J. D. Albert, H. Yoshizawa, and J. Jacobson, Nature 394, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Gratzel, Nature 409, 575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (1)

M. W. Prins, W. J. J. Welters, and J. W. Weekamp, Science 291, 277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

SID Symp. Tech. Dig. (3)

B. J. Gally, SID Symp. Tech. Dig. 35, 654 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Shiyanovskaya, A. Khan, S. Green, G. Magyar, and J. W. Doane, SID Symp. Tech. Dig. 36, 1556 (2005).

J. E. Jang, G. H. Lee, K. Y. Hwang, B. G. Song, J. W. Kim, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and J. E. Jung, SID Symp. Tech. Dig. 41, 575 (2010).

Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells (1)

N. Kobayashi, S. Miura, M. Nishimura, and H. Urano, Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 92, 136 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A schematic illustration of a color unit cell and W, G, B states made by EC reaction. (a) Magnified image of a color unit cell and SEM photo of TiO2 layer coated EC material. (b) Color photo images with applied bias states. (c) Spectrum of W, G, B color state.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Color state changes with different types of electrolyte. The more negative value signifies a higher intensity of the dark blue state. Photo images with the indicated steps were shown in the graph. For the initial blue step, the images are almost same, so that just one image is shown. (a) 0.05 wt. % TBAP and 0.05 wt. % ferrocene in NMP; (b) 0.05 wt. % TBAP and 0.02 wt. % ferrocene in NMP; (c) change in color intensity in various electrolyte components without ferrocene: C1, 0.02 wt. % TBAP, C2, 0.05 wt. % TBAP, C3, 0.1 wt. % TBAP in NMP; (d) current change with up–down driving condition and the different electrolyte compositions.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Double color reactions for the black state. The colors of graph signify the main color state for cell structure with respect to time and applied bias (orange line). (a) Blue–green combination with photo. (b) Green-blue combination with photo.

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