Abstract

The interfaces of a dielectric sample are resolved in reflection geometry using light from a frequency agile array of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers. The terahertz source is a 10-element linear array of third-order distributed-feedback QCLs emitting at discrete frequencies from 2.08 to 2.4 THz. Emission from the array is collimated and sent through a Michelson interferometer, with the sample placed in one of the arms. Interference signals collected at each frequency are used to reconstruct an interferogram and detect the interfaces in the sample. Because of the long coherence length of the source, the interferometer arms need not be adjusted to the zero-path delay. A depth resolution of 360 µm in the dielectric is achieved with further potential improvement through improved frequency coverage of the array. The entire experiment footprint is <1m×1m with the source operated in a compact, closed-cycle cryocooler.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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S. Zhong, Y. C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, and K. C. Gordon, Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 361 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 061112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, C. W. I. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Nat. Phys. 7, 166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Nat. Photon. 3, 586 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

1997 (2)

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

Amanti, M. I.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Opt. Express 18, 6390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Nat. Photon. 3, 586 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Araki, T.

Audet, R.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ban, D.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 061112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Opt. Express 18, 6390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Nat. Photon. 3, 586 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Belkin, M. A.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boivin, L.

Bour, D.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burghoff, D.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 061112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Castellano, F.

Chan, C. W. I.

S. Kumar, C. W. I. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Nat. Phys. 7, 166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, D.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chinn, S. R.

Choma, M.

Corzine, S.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, L.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Evans, M.

S. Zhong, Y. C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, and K. C. Gordon, Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 361 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Opt. Express 18, 6390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Nat. Photon. 3, 586 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Nat. Photon. 3, 586 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gordon, K. C.

S. Zhong, Y. C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, and K. C. Gordon, Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 361 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ho, L.

S. Zhong, Y. C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, and K. C. Gordon, Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 361 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hofler, G.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 061112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, C. W. I. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Nat. Phys. 7, 166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hunsche, S.

Izatt, J.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kao, T.-Y.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 061112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

S. Kumar, C. W. I. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Nat. Phys. 7, 166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, A. W. M.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 061112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. G.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

MacArthur, J.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

May, R. K.

S. Zhong, Y. C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, and K. C. Gordon, Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 361 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

Napoleone, A.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

Oakley, D. C.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, M.

S. Zhong, Y. C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, and K. C. Gordon, Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 361 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pflugl, C.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rades, T.

S. Zhong, Y. C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, and K. C. Gordon, Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 361 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 061112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

S. Kumar, C. W. I. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Nat. Phys. 7, 166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, W. H.

Sarunic, M.

Sawanaka, K.-I.

Scalari, G.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Opt. Express 18, 6390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Nat. Photon. 3, 586 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. C.

S. Zhong, Y. C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, and K. C. Gordon, Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 361 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

Taday, P. F.

S. Zhong, Y. C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, and K. C. Gordon, Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 361 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

Yasuda, T.

Yasui, T.

Zeitler, J. A.

S. Zhong, Y. C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, and K. C. Gordon, Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 361 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, S.

S. Zhong, Y. C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, and K. C. Gordon, Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 361 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 061112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nat. Photon. (1)

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Nat. Photon. 3, 586 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

S. Kumar, C. W. I. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Nat. Phys. 7, 166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

S. Zhong, Y. C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, and K. C. Gordon, Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 361 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) SEM of 21-element third-order DFB grating QCL array with system packaged in (b). (c) Spectra of QCLs in an array (devices numbered at left) showing frequency separation 40GHz. Devices 9 through 19 show frequency coverage of 320 GHz. Dashed line indicates fit to the measured gain of the QCL active region from [9].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Illustration of the SS-OCT system (schematic above). Components: frequency agile QCL array inside the compact cryocooler; lens (L) collimating the beam through the Michelson interferometer consisting of a beam splitter (BS), reference arm (REF), and sample arm. A polypropylene test sample is shown, with reflections occurring at the air/polypropylene and polypropylene/metal interfaces.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a), (b) Interference signals (blue “+”) and numerical fit (red line) for various devices as a function of position of the reference mirror without (a) and with (b) a 380 μm thick sample, respectively. (c), (d) Reconstructed interferogram (blue dashed trace, envelope as red solid trace) without and with the sample, respectively. (e) Numerically sharpened version of (d) using deconvolution. Arrows indicate strong reflection at the mirror/dielectric interface and a weaker reflection at the dielectric/air interface. (f) Three numerically sharpened measurements: reference mirror, reference mirror + 180 μm thick glass slide cover, and reference mirror + two glass slide covers. The strong front (glass/air) reflection clearly indicates the thickness of the sample. A weak metal/glass interface does not appear due to the absorption of the glass.

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