Abstract

Nanoscale rifts and ripples at a periodicity of 130 nm were generated on Si(100) surfaces immersed in water using tightly focused 800 nm 12 fs pulsed 85 MHz laser light at subnanojoule pulse energies. At radiant exposure close to the ablation threshold rifts were typically 20–50 nm in width and 70 nm in depth running perpendicular to the laser polarization. On increase of the irradiance, the rifts broadened and formed periodic ripples, whereas at highest exposure, a random nanoporous surface topology emerged. Rift and ripple formation is explained by laser-induced standing surface plasma waves, which result in periodic variation of dissipation and ablation.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011 (1)

2009 (1)

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

M. Guillermin, F. Garrelie, N. Sanner, E. Audouard, and H. Soder, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 8075 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

F. Costache, S. Kouteva-Arguitova, and J. Reif, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, Thin Solid Films 467, 334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. P. Singh, A. Kapoor, K. N. Tripathi, and G. R. Kumar, Opt. Laser Technol. 34, 37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, Appl. Phys. A 74, 19 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. Sokolowski-Tinten and D. von der Linde, Phys. Rev. B 61, 2643 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

D. Jost, P. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, and R. P. Salathé, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 625 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).

1982 (1)

P. M. Fauchet and A. E. Siegman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 824 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

J. A. van Vechten, Solid State Commun. 39, 1285 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

H. J. Leamy, G. A. Rozgonyi, T. T. Sheng, and G. K. Celler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 535 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. R. Chelikowski and M. L. Cohen, Phys. Rev. B 10, 5095 (1974).

1965 (1)

M. Birnbaum, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3688 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Anhut, T.

Audouard, E.

M. Guillermin, F. Garrelie, N. Sanner, E. Audouard, and H. Soder, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 8075 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baudach, S.

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, Appl. Phys. A 74, 19 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Birnbaum, M.

M. Birnbaum, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3688 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bonse, J.

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, Appl. Phys. A 74, 19 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Celler, G. K.

H. J. Leamy, G. A. Rozgonyi, T. T. Sheng, and G. K. Celler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 535 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Chelikowski, J. R.

J. R. Chelikowski and M. L. Cohen, Phys. Rev. B 10, 5095 (1974).

Cohen, M. L.

J. R. Chelikowski and M. L. Cohen, Phys. Rev. B 10, 5095 (1974).

Costache, F.

F. Costache, S. Kouteva-Arguitova, and J. Reif, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Daminelli, G.

G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, Thin Solid Films 467, 334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dörr, D.

Epple, M.

Fauchet, P. M.

P. M. Fauchet and A. E. Siegman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 824 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Garrelie, F.

M. Guillermin, F. Garrelie, N. Sanner, E. Audouard, and H. Soder, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 8075 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gottmann, J.

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guillermin, M.

M. Guillermin, F. Garrelie, N. Sanner, E. Audouard, and H. Soder, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 8075 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Horn, A.

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jost, D.

D. Jost, P. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, and R. P. Salathé, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 625 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kapoor, A.

A. P. Singh, A. Kapoor, K. N. Tripathi, and G. R. Kumar, Opt. Laser Technol. 34, 37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kautek, W.

G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, Thin Solid Films 467, 334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, Appl. Phys. A 74, 19 (2002).
[CrossRef]

König, K.

Kouteva-Arguitova, S.

F. Costache, S. Kouteva-Arguitova, and J. Reif, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kreutz, E. W.

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, J.

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, Thin Solid Films 467, 334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, Appl. Phys. A 74, 19 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, G. R.

A. P. Singh, A. Kapoor, K. N. Tripathi, and G. R. Kumar, Opt. Laser Technol. 34, 37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Le Harzic, R.

Leamy, H. J.

H. J. Leamy, G. A. Rozgonyi, T. T. Sheng, and G. K. Celler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 535 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lenzner, M.

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, Appl. Phys. A 74, 19 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lüthy, P.

D. Jost, P. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, and R. P. Salathé, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 625 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Miyaji, G.

Miyazaki, K.

Neumeier, M.

Preston, J. S.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).

Reif, J.

F. Costache, S. Kouteva-Arguitova, and J. Reif, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Riemann, I.

Rosenfeld, A.

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rozgonyi, G. A.

H. J. Leamy, G. A. Rozgonyi, T. T. Sheng, and G. K. Celler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 535 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Salathé, R. P.

D. Jost, P. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, and R. P. Salathé, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 625 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sanner, N.

M. Guillermin, F. Garrelie, N. Sanner, E. Audouard, and H. Soder, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 8075 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, D.

Schuck, H.

Sheng, T. T.

H. J. Leamy, G. A. Rozgonyi, T. T. Sheng, and G. K. Celler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 535 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

P. M. Fauchet and A. E. Siegman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 824 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Singh, A. P.

A. P. Singh, A. Kapoor, K. N. Tripathi, and G. R. Kumar, Opt. Laser Technol. 34, 37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).

Soder, H.

M. Guillermin, F. Garrelie, N. Sanner, E. Audouard, and H. Soder, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 8075 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten and D. von der Linde, Phys. Rev. B 61, 2643 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stracke, F.

Tripathi, K. N.

A. P. Singh, A. Kapoor, K. N. Tripathi, and G. R. Kumar, Opt. Laser Technol. 34, 37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).

van Vechten, J. A.

J. A. van Vechten, Solid State Commun. 39, 1285 (1981).
[CrossRef]

von der Linde, D.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten and D. von der Linde, Phys. Rev. B 61, 2643 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, R.

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

D. Jost, P. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, and R. P. Salathé, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 625 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. F.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).

Zimmermann, H.

Appl. Phys. A (2)

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, Appl. Phys. A 74, 19 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Costache, S. Kouteva-Arguitova, and J. Reif, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. J. Leamy, G. A. Rozgonyi, T. T. Sheng, and G. K. Celler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 535 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Fauchet and A. E. Siegman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 824 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Jost, P. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, and R. P. Salathé, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 625 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Guillermin, F. Garrelie, N. Sanner, E. Audouard, and H. Soder, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 8075 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Birnbaum, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3688 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

A. P. Singh, A. Kapoor, K. N. Tripathi, and G. R. Kumar, Opt. Laser Technol. 34, 37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).

K. Sokolowski-Tinten and D. von der Linde, Phys. Rev. B 61, 2643 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Chelikowski and M. L. Cohen, Phys. Rev. B 10, 5095 (1974).

Solid State Commun. (1)

J. A. van Vechten, Solid State Commun. 39, 1285 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, Thin Solid Films 467, 334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. Kawata, ed., Near-Field Optics and Surface Plasmon Polaritons (Springer, 2001), p. 19.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Sub-15 femtosecond laser nanoprocessing setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM images of line structures on Si(100) surface; (a)–(c) as generated, (d)–(f) after removal of silicon oxide particles by HF acid etching. The short period of 130 nm is perpendicular to the polarization (arrows) (e). In the line center regions of highest exposure are randomly nanoporous (d),(e). The long period of 1.0 µm is due to discrete scan steps (lines a, d are orthogonal to b, e). Line ends scanned at lower intensity reveal isolated spots consisting of sub-10 nm holes and undulations (c), (f).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Nanostructures on Si(100) surfaces at various levels of radiant exposure E. (a) Rifts of width 20–50 nm at an average spacing of 130 nm (E=20kJ/cm2); (b) widened rifts (E=41kJ/cm2), inset: magnified surface area; (c) ripples at a period of 130 nm (E=0.17MJ/cm2); (d) random nanoporous surface (E=3.1MJ/cm2). Insets (a,c,d): TEM images of FIB sections.

Equations (1)

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ε*=1+(εSi1)(1nehn0)ωp2ω211+i(ωτD)1.

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