Abstract

Nanoscale rifts and ripples at a periodicity of 130 nm were generated on Si(100) surfaces immersed in water using tightly focused 800 nm 12 fs pulsed 85 MHz laser light at subnanojoule pulse energies. At radiant exposure close to the ablation threshold rifts were typically 20–50 nm in width and 70 nm in depth running perpendicular to the laser polarization. On increase of the irradiance, the rifts broadened and formed periodic ripples, whereas at highest exposure, a random nanoporous surface topology emerged. Rift and ripple formation is explained by laser-induced standing surface plasma waves, which result in periodic variation of dissipation and ablation.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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